2016-01-26 release

enhancements to the musculoskeletal and visual systems
2016-01-26 release image

Ontology Diff Report

  • musculoskeletal
    • 1193 edited inter-basipterygium joint to connect basipterygium elements [wdahdul]
    • 1192 latissimus dorsi process: added part_of humerus [wdahdul]
    • taxon notes on latissimus dorsi insertion from RD. See 1192
    • added anterodorsal crest, midshaft, ectepicondylar depression [wdahdul]
    • fixed label for unfinished bone surface [wdahdul]
    • updated labels for dorsal depressor muscle, dorsal erector muscle, dorsal inclinator muscle, anterior dorsal fin basal cartilage (elasmobranchs), dorsal fin basal cartilage (elasmobranchs), dorsal fin ceratotrichial cartilage (elasmobranchs), posterior dorsal fin basal cartilage (elasmobranchs) [wdahdul]
    • added equivalence axiom to ‘median fin skeleton’ [wdahdul]
  • visual system
    • acc. ciliary ganglion part-of ocular adnexa. Fixes 1189
    • Main ciliary ganglion part-of ocular adnexa. Fixes 1189
    • Adding part-ofs to ocular adnexa based on inference and assertions. Fixes 1189
    • Removing assumption that conjunctiva is part-of eyeball, and manually classifying as ocular adnexa, see 1189
    • tapetum
  • misc
    • fixed typo in def fixes 1191
    • NT: enthesis. Fixes 1185
    • Made label for spiracle unambiguous. Fixes 1186
    • NTs for lower esophagus layers. Fixes 1187
    • taxon note for peristaltic heart
    • Deleted reproductive system develops_from mesoderm
    • NTs: esophagogastric junction layers. Fixes 1182
    • vertebra fix
  • metadata/technical
    • ensuring encoding is UTF-8
    • latest EMAPA alignment
    • fixed relation labels
    • Added ORCID for MAH

Note that in the diff report below in many of the changes the before-state will look the same as the after-state, as the replacement of non-UTF characters with UTF will appears invisible on the screen.

Original Ontology

  • IRI: http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/uberon.owl
  • VersionIRI: http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/uberon/releases/2015-11-19/uberon.owl

New Ontology

  • IRI: http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/uberon.owl
  • VersionIRI: http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/uberon/releases/2016-01-26/uberon.owl

Report for classes

Class objects lost from source: 1

Class objects new in target: 13

New Class : esophagogastric junction muscularis mucosa

New Class : esophagogastric junction muscularis propria

New Class : extensor digitorum brevis manus

New Class : lower esophagus submucosa

New Class : lower esophagus muscularis mucosa

New Class : enthesis

New Class : fibrous enthesis

New Class : fibrocartilage enthesis

New Class : esophagogastric junction mucosa

New Class : esophagogastric junction submucosa

New Class : midshaft

New Class : anterodorsal crest

New Class : ectepicondylar depression

Changed Class objects: 299

Changes for: latissimus dorsi muscle

  • Added
    • + latissimus dorsi muscle taxon notes In humans it inserts along a roughened line deep in the groove. In other mammals (most, I believe) it is an actual projection, the latissimus dorsi process [FEED:rd] [https://github.com/obophenotype/uberon/issues/1192]

Changes for: decidua

Changes for: endometrial gland

Changes for: lumbar vertebra

Changes for: clitoris

Changes for: vertebra

Changes for: middle colic artery

  • Deleted
    • - middle colic artery definition The middle colic artery is a branch of the superior mesenteric artery that mostly supplies the transverse colon. It arises just below the pancreas, and, passing downward and forward between the layers of the transverse mesocolon, divides into two branches: right and left. The right branch anastomoses with the right colic artery The left branch anastomoses with the left colic artery, a branch of the inferior mesenteric artery. The arches thus formed are placed about two fingers’ breadth from the transverse colon, to which they distribute branches. [WP,unvetted]. { database cross reference=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_colic_artery }
  • Added
    • + middle colic artery definition The middle colic artery is a branch of the superior mesenteric artery that mostly supplies the transverse colon. It arises just below the pancreas, and, passing downward and forward between the layers of the transverse mesocolon, divides into two branches: right and left. The right branch anastomoses with the right colic artery The left branch anastomoses with the left colic artery, a branch of the inferior mesenteric artery. The arches thus formed are placed about two fingers’ breadth from the transverse colon, to which they distribute branches. [WP,unvetted]. { database cross reference=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_colic_artery }

Changes for: cardiac ganglion

Changes for: orbitosphenoid

Changes for: bulb of penis

Changes for: somite

Changes for: mucosa of seminal vesicle

Changes for: mucosa of vagina

Changes for: post-anal tail muscle

Changes for: thoracic vertebra

Changes for: anatomical entity

Changes for: sacral vertebra

Changes for: caudal vertebra

Changes for: incisor tooth

  • Deleted
    • - incisor tooth comment Humans normally have eight (8) incisors; Among other animals, some other primates, cats and horses have twelve. Rodents have four, while Foxes have nine. Rabbits and hares (lagomorphs) were once considered rodents, but are distinguished by having eight — one small pair, called ‘peg teeth’, is located directly behind the most anterior pair. Incisors are used to bite off tough foods, such as red meat
  • Added
    • + incisor tooth comment Humans normally have eight (8) incisors; Among other animals, some other primates, cats and horses have twelve. Rodents have four, while Foxes have nine. Rabbits and hares (lagomorphs) were once considered rodents, but are distinguished by having eight - one small pair, called ‘peg teeth’, is located directly behind the most anterior pair. Incisors are used to bite off tough foods, such as red meat

Changes for: pia mater

  • Deleted
    • - pia mater external definition delicate innermost layer of the meninges—the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord. The thin, mesh-like pia mater closely envelops the entire surface of the brain, running down into the fissures of the cortex. It joins with the ependyma which lines the ventricles to form choroid plexuses that produce cerebrospinal fluid. In the spinal cord, the pia mater attaches to the dura mater by the denticular ligaments through the arachnoid membrane. The pia mater is a neural crest derivative[Wikipedia:Pia_mater]. { source=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pia_mater }
  • Added
    • + pia mater external definition delicate innermost layer of the meninges-the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord. The thin, mesh-like pia mater closely envelops the entire surface of the brain, running down into the fissures of the cortex. It joins with the ependyma which lines the ventricles to form choroid plexuses that produce cerebrospinal fluid. In the spinal cord, the pia mater attaches to the dura mater by the denticular ligaments through the arachnoid membrane. The pia mater is a neural crest derivative[Wikipedia:Pia_mater]. { source=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pia_mater }

Changes for: pubic symphysis

  • Deleted
    • - pubic symphysis taxon notes In birds, the pubic symphysis is present only in the ostrich, and the two hip bones are usually widely separated, making it easier to lay large eggs - Romer, Alfred Sherwood; Parsons, Thomas S. (1977). The Vertebrate Body. Philadelphia, PA: Holt-Saunders International. pp. 188–192. ISBN 0-03-910284-X.
  • Added
    • + pubic symphysis taxon notes In birds, the pubic symphysis is present only in the ostrich, and the two hip bones are usually widely separated, making it easier to lay large eggs - Romer, Alfred Sherwood; Parsons, Thomas S. (1977). The Vertebrate Body. Philadelphia, PA: Holt-Saunders International. pp. 188-192. ISBN 0-03-910284-X.

Changes for: rectus abdominis muscle

  • Deleted
    • - rectus abdominis muscle definition The rectus abdominis muscle is a paired muscle running vertically on each side of the anterior wall of the abdomen. There are two parallel sets of muscles, separated by a midline band of connective tissue called the linea alba (white line). It extends from the pubic symphysis/pubic crest inferiorly to the xiphisternum/xiphoid process and lower costal cartilages (5–7) superiorly. It is contained in the Rectus sheath. The rectus is usually crossed by three fibrous bands licked by the tendinous inscriptions. [WP,modified]. { database cross reference=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rectus_abdominis_muscle }
    • - rectus abdominis muscle taxon notes While the ‘sixpack’ is by far the most common configuration of the muscle bellies of the rectus, there exist rare anatomic variations which result in the appearance of eight (‘eightpack’), ten, or—even rarer—asymmetrically arranged segments. All these variations are functionally equivalent
  • Added
    • + rectus abdominis muscle definition The rectus abdominis muscle is a paired muscle running vertically on each side of the anterior wall of the abdomen. There are two parallel sets of muscles, separated by a midline band of connective tissue called the linea alba (white line). It extends from the pubic symphysis/pubic crest inferiorly to the xiphisternum/xiphoid process and lower costal cartilages (5-7) superiorly. It is contained in the Rectus sheath. The rectus is usually crossed by three fibrous bands licked by the tendinous inscriptions. [WP,modified]. { database cross reference=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rectus_abdominis_muscle }
    • + rectus abdominis muscle taxon notes While the ‘sixpack’ is by far the most common configuration of the muscle bellies of the rectus, there exist rare anatomic variations which result in the appearance of eight (‘eightpack’), ten, or-even rarer-asymmetrically arranged segments. All these variations are functionally equivalent

Changes for: intertarsal-type crurotarsal joint

  • Deleted
    • - intertarsal-type crurotarsal joint taxon notes The ankle joint of pseudosuchians (including crocodilians) and phytosaurs, passing between the astragalus and calcaneum, is also called crurotarsal joint in the literature.[5][6] In the skeletons of the phytosaurs and most of the pseudosuchians this joint bends around a peg on the astragalus which fits into a socket in the calcaneum (the ‘crocodile normal’ tarsus); only in the skeletons of the ornithosuchid pseudosuchians a peg on the calcaneum fits into a socket in the astragalus (the ‘crocodile reversed’ tarsus).[3] Strictly speaking this ankle isn’t a crurotarsal joint in the previously discussed sense, as it’s situated between the two proximal tarsal bones. However, while calcaneum isn’t fixed to the fibula, the astragalus is fixed to the tibia by a suture and thus in practice it functions as an extension of the crus.[7]
  • Added
    • + intertarsal-type crurotarsal joint taxon notes The ankle joint of pseudosuchians (including crocodilians) and phytosaurs, passing between the astragalus and calcaneum, is also called crurotarsal joint in the literature.[5][6] In the skeletons of the phytosaurs and most of the pseudosuchians this joint bends around a peg on the astragalus which fits into a socket in the calcaneum (the ‘crocodile normal’ tarsus); only in the skeletons of the ornithosuchid pseudosuchians a peg on the calcaneum fits into a socket in the astragalus (the ‘crocodile reversed’ tarsus).[3] Strictly speaking this ankle isn’t a crurotarsal joint in the previously discussed sense, as it’s situated between the two proximal tarsal bones. However, while calcaneum isn’t fixed to the fibula, the astragalus is fixed to the tibia by a suture and thus in practice it functions as an extension of the crus.[7]

Changes for: transverse pericardial sinus

Changes for: epithelium of gonad

Changes for: foramen ovale of heart

Changes for: corpus cavernosum penis

Changes for: scrotum skin

Changes for: vagina sebaceous gland

Changes for: duodenum

Changes for: prostate gland secretion

  • Deleted
    • - prostate gland secretion structure notes [Secretions]](A secretion of the prostate this is slightly alkaline fluid, milky or white in appearance. Usually constitutes 20–30% of the volume of the semen along with spermatozoa and seminal vesicle fluid [Wikipedia:Prostate#Secretions])
  • Added
    • + prostate gland secretion structure notes [Secretions]](A secretion of the prostate this is slightly alkaline fluid, milky or white in appearance. Usually constitutes 20-30% of the volume of the semen along with spermatozoa and seminal vesicle fluid [Wikipedia:Prostate#Secretions])

Changes for: skin of face

Changes for: adenohypophysis

  • Deleted
    • - adenohypophysis taxon notes While in most basal fish and tetrapods the adenohypophyseal anlagen invaginates to form Rathke’s pouch, in teleost fish the adenohypophyseal placode does not invaginate but rather maintains its initial organization forming a solid structure in the head[NCBIBook:NBK53175].
  • Added
    • + adenohypophysis taxon notes While in most basal fish and tetrapods the adenohypophyseal anlagen invaginates to form Rathke’s pouch, in teleost fish the adenohypophyseal placode does not invaginate but rather maintains its initial organization forming a solid structure in the head[NCBIBook:NBK53175].

Changes for: Zymbal’s gland

  • Deleted
    • - Zymbal’s gland structure notes Zymbal’s glands are located beneath squamous epithelium at the anterior and posterior aspect of the ear canal, and as a single external gland that is located anterior and ventral to the base of the external ear canal. The bilateral Zymbal’s glands are adjacent to the auditory canal and are made up of several lobules of modified sebaceous glands - http://ratguide.com/health/neoplasia/zymbals_gland_tumor.php.
  • Added
    • + Zymbal’s gland structure notes Zymbal’s glands are located beneath squamous epithelium at the anterior and posterior aspect of the ear canal, and as a single external gland that is located anterior and ventral to the base of the external ear canal. The bilateral Zymbal’s glands are adjacent to the auditory canal and are made up of several lobules of modified sebaceous glands - http://ratguide.com/health/neoplasia/zymbals_gland_tumor.php.

Changes for: vas deferens epithelium

Changes for: seminal vesicle epithelium

Changes for: koniocortex

Changes for: neck of organ

Changes for: navicular fossa of spongiose part of urethra

Changes for: Guérin’s valve

Changes for: periungual skin

Changes for: perivascular space

  • Deleted
    • - perivascular space comment VRS belonging to the subarachnoid space are continuous with VRS of the subpial space. The direct communication between VRS of the subarachnoid space and the subpial space is unique to the brain’s arteries, as no leptomeningeal layers surround the brain’s veins[WP]
  • Added
    • + perivascular space comment VRS belonging to the subarachnoid space are continuous with VRS of the subpial space. The direct communication between VRS of the subarachnoid space and the subpial space is unique to the brain’s arteries, as no leptomeningeal layers surround the brain’s veins[WP]

Changes for: extensor muscle

Changes for: breast

  • Deleted
    • - breast taxon notes The breasts of a female primate’s body contain the mammary glands, which secrete milk used to feed infants. Both men and women develop breasts from the same embryological tissues. However, at puberty female sex hormones, mainly estrogens, promote breast development, which does not happen with men. As a result women’s breasts become more prominent than men’s. { source=WP,unvetted }
  • Added
    • + breast taxon notes The breasts of a female primate’s body contain the mammary glands, which secrete milk used to feed infants. Both men and women develop breasts from the same embryological tissues. However, at puberty female sex hormones, mainly estrogens, promote breast development, which does not happen with men. As a result women’s breasts become more prominent than men’s. { source=WP,unvetted }

Changes for: levator palpebrae superioris

Changes for: extra-ocular muscle

Changes for: dilatator pupillae

  • Deleted
    • - dilatator pupillae definition The iris dilator muscle (pupil dilator muscle, pupillary dilator, radial muscle of iris, radiating fibers), is a smooth muscle of the eye, running radially in the iris and therefore fit as a dilator. It is innervated by the sympathetic system, which acts by releasing noradrenaline, which acts on α1-receptors. Thus, when presented with a threatening stimuli that activates the fight-or-flight response, this innervation dilates the iris, thus temporarily letting more light reach the retina. [WP,unvetted]. { database cross reference=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iris_dilator_muscle }
  • Added

Changes for: elbow

  • Deleted
    • - elbow definition The elbow is the region surrounding the elbow-joint—the ginglymus or hinge joint in the middle of the arm. Three bones form the elbow joint: the humerus of the upper arm, and the paired radius and ulna of the forearm. The bony prominence at the very tip of the elbow is the olecranon process of the ulna, and the inner aspect of the elbow is called the antecubital fossa. [WP,unvetted,human-specific]. { database cross reference=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elbow }
  • Added
    • + elbow definition The elbow is the region surrounding the elbow-joint-the ginglymus or hinge joint in the middle of the arm. Three bones form the elbow joint: the humerus of the upper arm, and the paired radius and ulna of the forearm. The bony prominence at the very tip of the elbow is the olecranon process of the ulna, and the inner aspect of the elbow is called the antecubital fossa. [WP,unvetted,human-specific]. { database cross reference=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elbow }

Changes for: infraspinatus muscle

  • Deleted
    • - infraspinatus muscle taxon notes The pectoral muscles — the pectoralis major and pectoralis minor — evolved from a primitive muscle sheet that connected the coracoid to the humerus. In late reptilians and early mammals, this muscle structure was displaced dorsally; while most of its components evolved into the pectoralis major, some fibers eventually attached to the scapula and evolved into the supraspinatus, the infraspinatus, and parts of the subscapularis. { source=WP }
  • Added
    • + infraspinatus muscle taxon notes The pectoral muscles - the pectoralis major and pectoralis minor - evolved from a primitive muscle sheet that connected the coracoid to the humerus. In late reptilians and early mammals, this muscle structure was displaced dorsally; while most of its components evolved into the pectoralis major, some fibers eventually attached to the scapula and evolved into the supraspinatus, the infraspinatus, and parts of the subscapularis. { source=WP }

Changes for: lower esophagus

Changes for: upper esophagus

Changes for: theca interna

Changes for: theca externa

Changes for: theca cell layer

Changes for: ascending aorta

  • Deleted
    • - ascending aorta definition The ascending aorta is the portion of the aorta in a two-pass circulatory system that lies between the heart and the arch of aorta[GO]. A portion of the aorta commencing at the upper part of the base of the left ventricle, on a level with the lower border of the third costal cartilage behind the left half of the sternum; it passes obliquely upward, forward, and to the right, in the direction of the heart’s axis, as high as the upper border of the second right costal cartilage, describing a slight curve in its course, and being situated, about 6 cm behind the posterior surface of the sternum. The total length is about 5 cm in length [Wikipedia] { database cross reference=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ascending_aorta , database cross reference=GO:0035905 }
  • Added
    • + ascending aorta definition The ascending aorta is the portion of the aorta in a two-pass circulatory system that lies between the heart and the arch of aorta[GO]. A portion of the aorta commencing at the upper part of the base of the left ventricle, on a level with the lower border of the third costal cartilage behind the left half of the sternum; it passes obliquely upward, forward, and to the right, in the direction of the heart’s axis, as high as the upper border of the second right costal cartilage, describing a slight curve in its course, and being situated, about 6 cm behind the posterior surface of the sternum. The total length is about 5 cm in length [Wikipedia] { database cross reference=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ascending_aorta , database cross reference=GO:0035905 }

Changes for: anatomical point connecting sagittal and lambdoidal sutures

Changes for: ambiens muscle

  • Deleted
    • - ambiens muscle external definition The tendon of the ambiens muscle passes obliquely over the knee joint. It assists in the control of the bird’s toes. This muscle is present in some reptiles but not mammals. It is present in caiques and some other South American genera, but missing in most parrot genera. This was first noted by Garrod (1874) who proposed using this and other anatomical differences to classify parrots. For oproperty_value external_definitionanatomical differences among parrots see carotid arteries, furcula, and uropygial gland { source=http://caiquesite.com/glossary.htm }
  • Added
    • + ambiens muscle external definition The tendon of the ambiens muscle passes obliquely over the knee joint. It assists in the control of the bird’s toes. This muscle is present in some reptiles but not mammals. It is present in caiques and some other South American genera, but missing in most parrot genera. This was first noted by Garrod (1874) who proposed using this and other anatomical differences to classify parrots. For oproperty_value external_definitionanatomical differences among parrots see carotid arteries, furcula, and uropygial gland { source=http://caiquesite.com/glossary.htm }

Changes for: lumbar vertebra pre-cartilage condensation

Changes for: avian uterine tube isthmus

Changes for: cervical vertebra cartilage element

Changes for: caudal vertebra pre-cartilage condensation

Changes for: caudal vertebra cartilage element

Changes for: lumbar vertebra cartilage element

Changes for: thoracic vertebra pre-cartilage condensation

Changes for: thoracic vertebra cartilage element

Changes for: cervical vertebra pre-cartilage condensation

Changes for: seminiferous tubule of testis

Changes for: vaginal hymen

Changes for: feather

  • Deleted
    • - feather definition one of the epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds. Feathers are formed in tiny follicles in the epidermis, or outer skin layer, that produce keratin proteins. The beta-keratins in feathers, beaks and claws — and the claws, scales and shells of reptiles — are composed of protein strands hydrogen-bonded into beta-pleated sheets, which are then further twisted and crosslinked by disulfide bridges into structures even tougher than the α-keratins of mammalian hair, horns and hoof. The exact signals that induce the growth of feathers on the skin are not known but it has been found that the transcription factor cDermo-1 induces the growth of feathers on skin and scales on the leg. { database cross reference=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Feather }
    • - feather structure notes The beta-keratins in feathers, beaks and claws — and the claws, scales and shells of reptiles — are composed of protein strands hydrogen-bonded into beta-pleated sheets, which are then further twisted and crosslinked by disulfide bridges into structures even tougher than the α-keratins of mammalian hair, horns and hoof.
  • Added
    • + feather definition one of the epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds. Feathers are formed in tiny follicles in the epidermis, or outer skin layer, that produce keratin proteins. { database cross reference=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Feather }
    • + feather structure notes The beta-keratins in feathers, beaks and claws - and the claws, scales and shells of reptiles - are composed of protein strands hydrogen-bonded into beta-pleated sheets, which are then further twisted and crosslinked by disulfide bridges into structures even tougher than the alpha-keratins of mammalian hair, horns and hoof.

Changes for: sartorius muscle

Changes for: ovarian follicle

Changes for: cumulus oophorus

Changes for: scrotum

Changes for: epididymis

Changes for: placenta junctional zone

Changes for: lobe of prostate

  • Deleted
    • - lobe of prostate taxon notes Anatomically, the human prostate gland is located between the base of the bladder and the rectum, and it completely surrounds the proximal urethra (Fig. 1A). It is a single alobular structure with central (CZ), peripheral (PZ) and transitional (TZ) zones. In contrast, the mouse prostate is not merged into one compact anatomical structure. It comprises four paired lobes situated circumferentially around the urethra, immediately caudal to the urinary bladder—namely, anterior (AP), dorsal (DP), lateral (LP), and ventral (VP) prostate (Fig. 1B). Often, the dorsal and the lateral lobes are thought of in combination and referred to as the dorsolateral (DLP) lobe as they share a ductal system. The mouse AP is considered analogous to the human CZ, which is rarely a site of neoplastic transformation in humans. The mouse DLP is considered most similar to the human PZ, which is the zone in which most carcinomas arise (Xue et al. 1997). These analogies, however, are limited as they are based solely on descriptive data and need to be re-evaluated using molecular techniques before the relationship between specific mouse prostate lobes and the human prostate zones is definitively asserted (Abate-Shen & Shen 2000). The mouse VP does not have a human homologue, and the human TZ does not have a murine homologue { source=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15163300 , source=https://github.com/obophenotype/uberon/issues/665 }
  • Added
    • + lobe of prostate taxon notes Anatomically, the human prostate gland is located between the base of the bladder and the rectum, and it completely surrounds the proximal urethra (Fig. 1A). It is a single alobular structure with central (CZ), peripheral (PZ) and transitional (TZ) zones. In contrast, the mouse prostate is not merged into one compact anatomical structure. It comprises four paired lobes situated circumferentially around the urethra, immediately caudal to the urinary bladder-namely, anterior (AP), dorsal (DP), lateral (LP), and ventral (VP) prostate (Fig. 1B). Often, the dorsal and the lateral lobes are thought of in combination and referred to as the dorsolateral (DLP) lobe as they share a ductal system. The mouse AP is considered analogous to the human CZ, which is rarely a site of neoplastic transformation in humans. The mouse DLP is considered most similar to the human PZ, which is the zone in which most carcinomas arise (Xue et al. 1997). These analogies, however, are limited as they are based solely on descriptive data and need to be re-evaluated using molecular techniques before the relationship between specific mouse prostate lobes and the human prostate zones is definitively asserted (Abate-Shen & Shen 2000). The mouse VP does not have a human homologue, and the human TZ does not have a murine homologue { source=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15163300 , source=https://github.com/obophenotype/uberon/issues/665 }

Changes for: pituitary gland

  • Deleted
    • - pituitary gland taxon notes The lamprey possesses a distinct pituitary organ and hormones, the ascidian does not show distinct evidence of them [Sower S, Freamat M, Kavanaugh S. The origins of the vertebrate hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) and hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid (HPT) endocrine systems: new insights from lampreys. Gen Comp Endocrinol 2009;161:20-9]
  • Added
    • + pituitary gland taxon notes The lamprey possesses a distinct pituitary organ and hormones, the ascidian does not show distinct evidence of them [Sower S, Freamat M, Kavanaugh S. The origins of the vertebrate hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) and hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) endocrine systems: new insights from lampreys. Gen Comp Endocrinol 2009;161:20-9]

Changes for: spongiose part of urethra

Changes for: naris

Changes for: skin of penis

Changes for: choroidal gland

Changes for: stratum argenteum of choroid

Changes for: renal glomerulus

  • Deleted
    • - renal glomerulus external ontology notes ZFA - The multi-tissue structure where the glomerular basement membrane supported by mesonephric podocytes filters blood from the glomerular capillaries. GUDMAP: ‘Together, the Bowman’s capsule and the glomerulus comprise the definitive renal corpuscle.’ - here the glomerulus is part of the capsule? { external ontology=ZFA }
  • Added
    • + renal glomerulus external ontology notes ZFA - The multi-tissue structure where the glomerular basement membrane supported by mesonephric podocytes filters blood from the glomerular capillaries. GUDMAP: ‘Together, the Bowman’s capsule and the glomerulus comprise the definitive renal corpuscle.’ - here the glomerulus is part of the capsule? { external ontology=ZFA }

Changes for: fallopian tube

Changes for: quadratus lumborum

Changes for: glomerular capsule

Changes for: pontine reticular formation

Changes for: sweat gland of eyelid

  • Deleted
    • - sweat gland of eyelid definition Glands of Moll, also known as ciliary glands, are modified apocrine sweat glands that are found on the margin of the eyelid. They are next to the base of the eyelashes, and anterior to the Meibomian glands within the distal eyelid margin. These glands are relatively large and tubular-shaped. The glands of Moll are named after Dutch oculist Jacob Anton Moll (1832–1914). Glands of Moll empty into the adjacent lashes. Glands of Moll and Zeis secrete lipid that adds to the superficial layer of the tear film, retarding evaporation. The glands of Moll are prone to infection and blockage of its duct with sebum and cell debris. Blockage of the gland’s duct causes swelling which can manifest itself as a stye. { database cross reference=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gland_of_Moll }
  • Added
    • + sweat gland of eyelid definition Glands of Moll, also known as ciliary glands, are modified apocrine sweat glands that are found on the margin of the eyelid. They are next to the base of the eyelashes, and anterior to the Meibomian glands within the distal eyelid margin. These glands are relatively large and tubular-shaped. The glands of Moll are named after Dutch oculist Jacob Anton Moll (1832-1914). Glands of Moll empty into the adjacent lashes. Glands of Moll and Zeis secrete lipid that adds to the superficial layer of the tear film, retarding evaporation. The glands of Moll are prone to infection and blockage of its duct with sebum and cell debris. Blockage of the gland’s duct causes swelling which can manifest itself as a stye. { database cross reference=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gland_of_Moll }

Changes for: crypt of Henle

  • Deleted
    • - crypt of Henle definition Crypts of Henle are microscopic pockets found in scattered sections of the conjunctiva around the eyeball. They are responsible for secreting mucin, a proteinous substance that makes up the inner layer of tears. It coats the cornea to provide a hydrophilic layer that allows for even distribution of the tear film. The layer of mucin allows tears to glide evenly across the eye’s surface[WP]. { database cross reference=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crypts_of_Henle }
  • Added
    • + crypt of Henle definition Crypts of Henle are microscopic pockets found in scattered sections of the conjunctiva around the eyeball. They are responsible for secreting mucin, a proteinous substance that makes up the inner layer of tears. It coats the cornea to provide a hydrophilic layer that allows for even distribution of the tear film. The layer of mucin allows tears to glide evenly across the eye’s surface[WP]. { database cross reference=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crypts_of_Henle }

Changes for: marginal zone of spleen

Changes for: corpus luteum

Changes for: gland

Changes for: vesicular appendage of epoophoron

Changes for: pancreas

  • Deleted
    • - pancreas function notes The mature pancreas of higher vertebrates and mammals comprises two major functional units: the exocrine pancreas, which is responsible for the production of digestive enzymes to be secreted into the gut lumen, and the endocrine pancreas, which has its role in the synthesis of several hormones with key regulatory functions in food uptake and metabolism. The exocrine portion constitutes the majority of the mass of the pancreas, and contains only two different cell types, the secretory acinar cells and the ductular cells. The endocrine portion, which comprises only 1–2% of the total mass, contains five different cell types, which are organized into mixed functional assemblies referred to as the islets of Langerhans { source=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16417468 }
  • Added
    • + pancreas function notes The mature pancreas of higher vertebrates and mammals comprises two major functional units: the exocrine pancreas, which is responsible for the production of digestive enzymes to be secreted into the gut lumen, and the endocrine pancreas, which has its role in the synthesis of several hormones with key regulatory functions in food uptake and metabolism. The exocrine portion constitutes the majority of the mass of the pancreas, and contains only two different cell types, the secretory acinar cells and the ductular cells. The endocrine portion, which comprises only 1-2% of the total mass, contains five different cell types, which are organized into mixed functional assemblies referred to as the islets of Langerhans { source=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16417468 }

Changes for: remnant of processus vaginalis

Changes for: canal of Nuck

Changes for: remnnant of ductus deferens

Changes for: placenta labyrinth

Changes for: rete testis

Changes for: choroid plexus epithelium

  • Deleted
    • - choroid plexus epithelium structure notes The CP epithelial layer is continuous with the ependymal cell layer that lines the ventricles, but unlike the ependyma, the epithelial layer has tight gap junctions between the cells on the side facing the ventricle (apical surface). These gap junctions prevent the majority of substances from crossing the cell layer into the CSF; thus the CP acts as a blood–CSF barrier
  • Added
    • + choroid plexus epithelium structure notes The CP epithelial layer is continuous with the ependymal cell layer that lines the ventricles, but unlike the ependyma, the epithelial layer has tight gap junctions between the cells on the side facing the ventricle (apical surface). These gap junctions prevent the majority of substances from crossing the cell layer into the CSF; thus the CP acts as a blood-CSF barrier

Changes for: spiracle (sensu Vertebrata)

Changes for: prepuce

Changes for: air sac

  • Deleted
    • - air sac comment Three distinct sets of organs perform respiration—the anterior air sacs (interclavicular, cervicals, and anterior thoracics), the lungs, and the posterior air sacs (posterior thoracics and abdominals). The posterior and anterior air sacs, typically nine, expand during inhalation. Air enters the bird via the trachea. Half of the inhaled air enters the posterior air sacs, the other half passes through the lungs and into the anterior air sacs. Air from the anterior air sacs empties directly into the trachea and out the bird’s mouth or nares. The posterior air sacs empty their air into the lungs. Air passing through the lungs as the bird exhales is expelled via the trachea. Some taxonomic groups (Passeriformes) possess 7 air sacs, as the clavicular air sacs may interconnect or be fused with the cranial thoracic air sacs[WP]
  • Added
    • + air sac comment Three distinct sets of organs perform respiration-the anterior air sacs (interclavicular, cervicals, and anterior thoracics), the lungs, and the posterior air sacs (posterior thoracics and abdominals). The posterior and anterior air sacs, typically nine, expand during inhalation. Air enters the bird via the trachea. Half of the inhaled air enters the posterior air sacs, the other half passes through the lungs and into the anterior air sacs. Air from the anterior air sacs empties directly into the trachea and out the bird’s mouth or nares. The posterior air sacs empty their air into the lungs. Air passing through the lungs as the bird exhales is expelled via the trachea. Some taxonomic groups (Passeriformes) possess 7 air sacs, as the clavicular air sacs may interconnect or be fused with the cranial thoracic air sacs[WP]

Changes for: supraneural body

  • Deleted
    • - supraneural body taxon notes The supraneural body from hematopoietically stimulated lampreys appears to be histologically-similar to ‘bone marrow’ in higher vertebrates and contains all blood cell lineages and their precursors, including lymphocytes at all stages of maturity
  • Added
    • + supraneural body taxon notes The supraneural body from hematopoietically stimulated lampreys appears to be histologically-similar to ‘bone marrow’ in higher vertebrates and contains all blood cell lineages and their precursors, including lymphocytes at all stages of maturity

Changes for: adenohypophyseal placode

  • Deleted
    • - adenohypophyseal placode development notes Fate-mapping studies in amphibian, chick and mouse embryos (Eagleson et al., 1986; 1995; Couly and Le Douarin, 1985; Cobos et al., 2001; Osumi-Yamachita et al., 1994; Kawamura et al., 2002) have shown that the cells contributing to the adenohypophysis develop at the midline of the anterior neural ridge, which delineates the rostral boundary of the neural plate, a region devoid of neural crest. The anterior neural ridge also gives rise to the olfactory placodes and some forebrain tissues including the olfactory bulbs (reviewed in Papalopulu, 1995). Ablation of this region in chick embryos at the 2-4 somite stage confirmed these lineage analyses as it prevented formation of Rathke’s pouch and any further pituitary development (elAmraoui and Dubois, 1993). Upon head folding, the oral ectoderm cells of the adenohypophyseal placode invaginate towards the prospective ventral diencephalon to form Rathke’s pouch, the anlage of the adenohypophysis. Rathke’s pouch starts as an invagination of the oral ectoderm in response to inductive signals from the prospective diencephalon. The region of the diencephalon above the pouch is known as the infundibulum and forms the posterior lobe of the pituitary or neurohypohysis (Figure 3). While in most basal fish and tetrapods the adenohypophyseal anlagen invaginates to form Rathke’s pouch, in teleost fish the adenohypophyseal placode does not invaginate but rather maintains its initial organization forming a solid structure in the head (reviewed in Pogoda and Hammerschmidt; 2009)
  • Added
    • + adenohypophyseal placode development notes Fate-mapping studies in amphibian, chick and mouse embryos (Eagleson et al., 1986; 1995; Couly and Le Douarin, 1985; Cobos et al., 2001; Osumi-Yamachita et al., 1994; Kawamura et al., 2002) have shown that the cells contributing to the adenohypophysis develop at the midline of the anterior neural ridge, which delineates the rostral boundary of the neural plate, a region devoid of neural crest. The anterior neural ridge also gives rise to the olfactory placodes and some forebrain tissues including the olfactory bulbs (reviewed in Papalopulu, 1995). Ablation of this region in chick embryos at the 2-4 somite stage confirmed these lineage analyses as it prevented formation of Rathke’s pouch and any further pituitary development (elAmraoui and Dubois, 1993). Upon head folding, the oral ectoderm cells of the adenohypophyseal placode invaginate towards the prospective ventral diencephalon to form Rathke’s pouch, the anlage of the adenohypophysis. Rathke’s pouch starts as an invagination of the oral ectoderm in response to inductive signals from the prospective diencephalon. The region of the diencephalon above the pouch is known as the infundibulum and forms the posterior lobe of the pituitary or neurohypohysis (Figure 3). While in most basal fish and tetrapods the adenohypophyseal anlagen invaginates to form Rathke’s pouch, in teleost fish the adenohypophyseal placode does not invaginate but rather maintains its initial organization forming a solid structure in the head (reviewed in Pogoda and Hammerschmidt; 2009)

Changes for: submucosa of uterine tube

Changes for: epoophoron

Changes for: scent gland

  • Deleted
    • - scent gland definition Scent glands are exocrine glands found in most mammals. They produce semi-viscous secretions which contain pheromones and other semiochemical compounds. These odor-messengers indicate information such as status, territory marking, mood, and sexual power. The odor may be subliminal—not consciously detectable. Though it is not their primary function, the salivary glands may also function as scent glands in some animals. { database cross reference=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scent_gland }
  • Added
    • + scent gland definition Scent glands are exocrine glands found in most mammals. They produce semi-viscous secretions which contain pheromones and other semiochemical compounds. These odor-messengers indicate information such as status, territory marking, mood, and sexual power. The odor may be subliminal-not consciously detectable. Though it is not their primary function, the salivary glands may also function as scent glands in some animals. { database cross reference=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scent_gland }

Changes for: zona incerta

  • Deleted
    • - zona incerta definition The zona incerta is a horizontally elongated region of gray matter cells in the subthalamus below the thalamus. Its connections project extensively over the brain from the cerebral cortex down into the spinal cord. Its function is unknown though several have been proposed related to ‘limbic–motor integration’ such as controlling visceral activity and pain; gating sensory input and synchronizing cortical and subcortical brain rhythms. Its dysfunction may play a role in central pain syndrome. It is also been identified as a promising deep brain stimulation therapy target for treating Parkinsons Disease. Its existence was first described by Auguste Forel in 1877 as a ‘region of which nothing certain can be said’. A hundred and thirty years later in 2007, Nadia Urbain and Martin Deschênes of Université Laval noted that the ‘zona incerta is among the least studied regions of the brain; its name does not even appear in the index of many textbooks. ‘ [WP,unvetted]. { database cross reference=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zona_incerta }
  • Added
    • + zona incerta definition The zona incerta is a horizontally elongated region of gray matter cells in the subthalamus below the thalamus. Its connections project extensively over the brain from the cerebral cortex down into the spinal cord. Its function is unknown though several have been proposed related to ‘limbic-motor integration’ such as controlling visceral activity and pain; gating sensory input and synchronizing cortical and subcortical brain rhythms. Its dysfunction may play a role in central pain syndrome. It is also been identified as a promising deep brain stimulation therapy target for treating Parkinsons Disease. Its existence was first described by Auguste Forel in 1877 as a ‘region of which nothing certain can be said’. A hundred and thirty years later in 2007, Nadia Urbain and Martin Deschênes of Université Laval noted that the ‘zona incerta is among the least studied regions of the brain; its name does not even appear in the index of many textbooks. ‘ [WP,unvetted]. { database cross reference=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zona_incerta }

Changes for: milk

Changes for: ventral lateral nucleus of thalamus

Changes for: preoptic area

Changes for: placenta

Changes for: ampulla of uterine tube

Changes for: fibrocartilage

  • Deleted
    • - fibrocartilage comment The white fibrocartilages admit of arrangement into four groups—interarticular, connecting, circumferential, and stratiform – WP. EDITOR NOTE: TODO add mineralized
  • Added
    • + fibrocartilage comment The white fibrocartilages admit of arrangement into four groups-interarticular, connecting, circumferential, and stratiform – WP. EDITOR NOTE: TODO add mineralized

Changes for: placental labyrinth villous

Changes for: placental membrane

Changes for: placental cotyledon

Changes for: vaginal sphincter

Changes for: solid compound organ

Changes for: unilaminar epithelium

Changes for: wheel papilla

  • Deleted
    • - wheel papilla comment the terminal papillae superficially resemble the ‘anal teeth’ of non-apodid holothurians.
  • Added
    • + wheel papilla comment the terminal papillae superficially resemble the ‘anal teeth’ of non-apodid holothurians.

Changes for: raphe of penis

Changes for: sac of scrotum

Changes for: decidua basalis

Changes for: multicellular organism

Changes for: major vestibular gland

Changes for: immaterial anatomical entity

Changes for: material anatomical entity

Changes for: anatomical space

Changes for: organism substance

Changes for: extraembryonic structure

Changes for: simple organ

Changes for: compound organ component

Changes for: cell part

Changes for: anatomical cluster

Changes for: acellular anatomical structure

Changes for: organism subdivision

Changes for: cavitated compound organ

Changes for: anatomical group

Changes for: simple cuboidal epithelium

Changes for: epithelium

Changes for: basal lamina of epithelium

Changes for: multi-tissue structure

Changes for: atypical epithelium

Changes for: simple squamous epithelium

Changes for: multilaminar epithelium

Changes for: simple columnar epithelium

Changes for: corpus spongiosum of penis

Changes for: conjunctiva

Changes for: extensor digitorum brevis pes

Changes for: pearly penile papule

Changes for: penile spine

Changes for: gubernacular bulb

Changes for: triceps surae

  • Deleted
    • - triceps surae definition The triceps surae is a pair of muscles located at the calf - the gastrocnemius and the soleus. These muscles both insert into the calcaneus, the bone of the heel of the human foot, and form the major part of the muscle of the back part of the lower leg, commonly known as the calf muscle. The triceps surae is connected to the foot through the Achilles tendon, and has 3 heads deriving from the 2 major masses of muscle. The superficial portion (the gastrocnemius) gives off 2 heads attaching to the base of the femur directly above the knee. The deep (profundis) mass of muscle (the soleus) forms the remaining head which attaches to the superior posterior area of the tibia. The triceps surae is innervated by the tibial nerve, specifically, nerve roots L5–S2. [WP,unvetted]. { database cross reference=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triceps_surae_muscle }
  • Added
    • + triceps surae definition The triceps surae is a pair of muscles located at the calf - the gastrocnemius and the soleus. These muscles both insert into the calcaneus, the bone of the heel of the human foot, and form the major part of the muscle of the back part of the lower leg, commonly known as the calf muscle. The triceps surae is connected to the foot through the Achilles tendon, and has 3 heads deriving from the 2 major masses of muscle. The superficial portion (the gastrocnemius) gives off 2 heads attaching to the base of the femur directly above the knee. The deep (profundis) mass of muscle (the soleus) forms the remaining head which attaches to the superior posterior area of the tibia. The triceps surae is innervated by the tibial nerve, specifically, nerve roots L5-S2. [WP,unvetted]. { database cross reference=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triceps_surae_muscle }

Changes for: vagina orifice

Changes for: flexor muscle

Changes for: parotid gland excretory duct

  • Deleted
    • - parotid gland excretory duct definition Any of the interlobular excretory ducts of the parotid gland which are found in the connective tissue septa and formed by the union of several intralobular striated (secretory) ducts; ultimately, the excretory ducts of the parotid gland coalesce and form a single main excretory duct (Stensen’s duct) that opens into the oral cavity; excretory ducts do not change the secretory product. { database cross reference=MP:0013750 }
  • Added
    • + parotid gland excretory duct definition Any of the interlobular excretory ducts of the parotid gland which are found in the connective tissue septa and formed by the union of several intralobular striated (secretory) ducts; ultimately, the excretory ducts of the parotid gland coalesce and form a single main excretory duct (Stensen’s duct) that opens into the oral cavity; excretory ducts do not change the secretory product. { database cross reference=MP:0013750 }

Changes for: vertebra cartilage element

Changes for: vertebra pre-cartilage condensation

Changes for: dartos muscle of labia majora

Changes for: lacrimal apparatus

Changes for: turbinate bone

  • Deleted
    • - turbinate bone taxon notes In humans, the turbinates divide the nasal airway into three groove-like air passages –and are responsible for forcing inhaled air to flow in a steady, regular pattern around the largest possible surface of cilia and climate controlling tissue. { source=WP,unvetted }
  • Added
    • + turbinate bone taxon notes In humans, the turbinates divide the nasal airway into three groove-like air passages -and are responsible for forcing inhaled air to flow in a steady, regular pattern around the largest possible surface of cilia and climate controlling tissue. { source=WP,unvetted }

Changes for: corneal epithelium

  • Deleted
    • - corneal epithelium taxon notes In zebrafish: nonpigmented, stratified squamous nonkeratinizing epithelial cells, attached to a thick basement membrane that is considered to be analogous to the Bowman’s membrane in mammals
  • Added
    • + corneal epithelium taxon notes In zebrafish: nonpigmented, stratified squamous nonkeratinizing epithelial cells, attached to a thick basement membrane that is considered to be analogous to the Bowman’s membrane in mammals

Changes for: dartos muscle of scrotum

Changes for: soft palate

Changes for: duct of lesser vestibular gland

Changes for: distal segment of digit

  • Deleted
    • - distal segment of digit comment Newborn and adult mice are able to regrow forelimb (finger) and hindlimb (toe) digit tips after their amputation through the distal interphalangeal joint. Regeneration of the digit tip involves the integrated regrowth of multiple tissues within 2–3 months, reaching an external morphology that is cosmetically and functionally similar to normal digits. Most importantly, regeneration of the mouse distal digit shares morphological similarities with clinical cases documenting regrowth of missing distal portions of fingers in both children and adults
  • Added
    • + distal segment of digit development notes Newborn and adult mice are able to regrow forelimb (finger) and hindlimb (toe) digit tips after their amputation through the distal interphalangeal joint. Regeneration of the digit tip involves the integrated regrowth of multiple tissues within 2-3 months, reaching an external morphology that is cosmetically and functionally similar to normal digits. Most importantly, regeneration of the mouse distal digit shares morphological similarities with clinical cases documenting regrowth of missing distal portions of fingers in both children and adults

Changes for: lower esophagus muscularis layer

Changes for: accessory ciliary ganglion

Changes for: genital swelling

Changes for: epididymal fat pad

Changes for: tear film

  • Deleted
    • - tear film structure notes The tear film is structurally complex with three distinct layers: a surface lipid layer (0.1–0.2 μm thick), a middle aqueous layer (7–8 μm thick), and an inner mucus layer (30 μm thick)[http://physiologyonline.physiology.org/content/13/2/97]
  • Added
    • + tear film structure notes The tear film is structurally complex with three distinct layers: a surface lipid layer, a middle aqueous layer, and an inner mucus layer[http://physiologyonline.physiology.org/content/13/2/97]

Changes for: umbilical blood vessel

  • Deleted
    • - umbilical blood vessel definition One of the three blood vessels, usually one large umbilical vein and two small umbilical arteries, buried within Wharton’s jelly, that transport blood to and from the placenta, where exchange between the mother and fetus takes place; the umbilical vein carries oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the placenta to the fetus, and the umbilical arteries carry deoxygenated, nutrient-depleted blood from the fetus to the placenta. { database cross reference=MP:0003230 }
  • Added
    • + umbilical blood vessel definition One of the three blood vessels, usually one large umbilical vein and two small umbilical arteries, buried within Wharton’s jelly, that transport blood to and from the placenta, where exchange between the mother and fetus takes place; the umbilical vein carries oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the placenta to the fetus, and the umbilical arteries carry deoxygenated, nutrient-depleted blood from the fetus to the placenta. { database cross reference=MP:0003230 }

Changes for: cerebral cortex

  • Deleted
    • - cerebral cortex external definition The cerebral cortex is a structure within the brain that plays a key role in memory, attention, perceptual awareness, thought, language, and consciousness. It constitutes the outermost layer of the cerebrum. In preserved brains, it has a grey color, hence the name ‘grey matter’. Grey matter is formed by neurons and their unmyelinated fibers, whereas the white matter below the grey matter of the cortex is formed predominantly by myelinated axons interconnecting different regions of the central nervous system. The human cerebral cortex is 2–4 mm (0.08–0.16 inches) thick. The surface of the cerebral cortex is folded in large mammals, such that more than two-thirds of the cortical surface is buried in the grooves, called ‘sulci. ‘ The phylogenetically most recent part of the cerebral cortex, the neocortex, also called isocortex, is differentiated into six horizontal layers; the more ancient part of the cerebral cortex, the hippocampus (also called archicortex), has at most three cellular layers, and is divided into subfields. Relative variations in thickness or cell type (among other parameters) allow us to distinguish between different neocortical architectonic fields. The geometry of at least some of these fields seems to be related to the anatomy of the cortical folds, and, for example, layers in the upper part of the cortical ridges seem to be more clearly differentiated than in its deeper parts. [WP,unvetted][Wikipedia:Cerebral_cortex]. { source=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cerebral_cortex }
  • Added
    • + cerebral cortex external definition The cerebral cortex is a structure within the brain that plays a key role in memory, attention, perceptual awareness, thought, language, and consciousness. It constitutes the outermost layer of the cerebrum. In preserved brains, it has a grey color, hence the name ‘grey matter’. Grey matter is formed by neurons and their unmyelinated fibers, whereas the white matter below the grey matter of the cortex is formed predominantly by myelinated axons interconnecting different regions of the central nervous system. The human cerebral cortex is 2-4 mm (0.08-0.16 inches) thick. The surface of the cerebral cortex is folded in large mammals, such that more than two-thirds of the cortical surface is buried in the grooves, called ‘sulci. ‘ The phylogenetically most recent part of the cerebral cortex, the neocortex, also called isocortex, is differentiated into six horizontal layers; the more ancient part of the cerebral cortex, the hippocampus (also called archicortex), has at most three cellular layers, and is divided into subfields. Relative variations in thickness or cell type (among other parameters) allow us to distinguish between different neocortical architectonic fields. The geometry of at least some of these fields seems to be related to the anatomy of the cortical folds, and, for example, layers in the upper part of the cortical ridges seem to be more clearly differentiated than in its deeper parts. [WP,unvetted][Wikipedia:Cerebral_cortex]. { source=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cerebral_cortex }

Changes for: cornea

  • Deleted
    • - cornea taxon notes Compared to terrestial animals, the cornea of zebrafish is relatively flat. It consists of nonpigmented, stratified squamous nonkeratinizing epithelial cells, attached to a thick basement membrane that is considered to be analogous to the Bowman’s membrane in mammals. In fish, and aquatic vertebrates in general, the cornea plays no role in focusing light, since it has virtually the same refractive index as water
  • Added
    • + cornea taxon notes Compared to terrestial animals, the cornea of zebrafish is relatively flat. It consists of nonpigmented, stratified squamous nonkeratinizing epithelial cells, attached to a thick basement membrane that is considered to be analogous to the Bowman’s membrane in mammals. In fish, and aquatic vertebrates in general, the cornea plays no role in focusing light, since it has virtually the same refractive index as water

Changes for: glans

Changes for: penis

Changes for: seminal vesicle

Changes for: vagina

Changes for: reproductive system

Changes for: puboischiofemoralis internus muscle

Changes for: rete ovarii

Changes for: duct of bulbourethral gland

Changes for: duct of major vestibular gland

Changes for: choroidal guanine tapetum

Changes for: vertebral element

Changes for: precordial region

Changes for: stria vascularis vasculature

Changes for: ciliated pit

  • Deleted
    • - ciliated pit comment Development: joins with Hatschek’s diverticulum to form Hatschek’s pit in the adult. Location: anterior to the mouth.
  • Added
    • + ciliated pit comment Development: joins with Hatschek’s diverticulum to form Hatschek’s pit in the adult. Location: anterior to the mouth.

Changes for: arytenoid muscle

Changes for: egg

Changes for: egg yolk

Changes for: secondary heart field

  • Deleted
    • - secondary heart field taxon notes In general, the two studies in chick concluded that the contribution of the SHF was to the outflow tract, whereas the mouse work suggested that the second lineage contributed more broadly to the heart, including the outflow tract and much or all of the right ventricle [11–14]. These different conclusions may represent differences in the experimental approaches used or may represent bona fide differences in the contribution of the second lineage to the hearts of birds compared to mammals [11]. Alternatively, the secondary/anterior heart fields described in the chick may represent a subset of a broader field that makes a more substantial contribution to the heart, as the mouse studies suggested { source=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17276708 }
  • Added
    • + secondary heart field taxon notes In general, the two studies in chick concluded that the contribution of the SHF was to the outflow tract, whereas the mouse work suggested that the second lineage contributed more broadly to the heart, including the outflow tract and much or all of the right ventricle [11-14]. These different conclusions may represent differences in the experimental approaches used or may represent bona fide differences in the contribution of the second lineage to the hearts of birds compared to mammals [11]. Alternatively, the secondary/anterior heart fields described in the chick may represent a subset of a broader field that makes a more substantial contribution to the heart, as the mouse studies suggested { source=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17276708 }

Changes for: lateral vestibular nucleus

Changes for: dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

  • Deleted
    • - dorsolateral prefrontal cortex definition The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DL-PFC or DLPFC), according to a more restricted definition, is roughly equivalent to Brodmann areas 9 and 46.[1] According to a broader definition DL-PFC consists of the lateral portions of Brodmann areas 9 – 12, of areas 45, 46, and the superior part of area 47.[2] These regions mainly receive their blood supply from the middle cerebral artery. With respect to neurotransmitter systems, there is evidence that dopamine plays a particularly important role in DL-PFC.[2]DL-PFC is connected to the orbitofrontal cortex, and to a variety of brain areas, which include the thalamus, parts of the basal ganglia (the dorsal caudate nucleus), the hippocampus, and primary and secondary association areas of neocortex, including posterior temporal, parietal, and occipital areas { database cross reference=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dorsolateral_prefrontal_cortex }
  • Added
    • + dorsolateral prefrontal cortex definition The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DL-PFC or DLPFC), according to a more restricted definition, is roughly equivalent to Brodmann areas 9 and 46.[1] According to a broader definition DL-PFC consists of the lateral portions of Brodmann areas 9 - 12, of areas 45, 46, and the superior part of area 47.[2] These regions mainly receive their blood supply from the middle cerebral artery. With respect to neurotransmitter systems, there is evidence that dopamine plays a particularly important role in DL-PFC.[2]DL-PFC is connected to the orbitofrontal cortex, and to a variety of brain areas, which include the thalamus, parts of the basal ganglia (the dorsal caudate nucleus), the hippocampus, and primary and secondary association areas of neocortex, including posterior temporal, parietal, and occipital areas { database cross reference=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dorsolateral_prefrontal_cortex }

Changes for: cavum septum pellucidum

Changes for: chordo neural hinge

  • Deleted
    • - chordo neural hinge taxon notes In mouse and chick, the derivative of the NSB (with a minor contribution from the CLE), the `chordo-neural-hinge’(CNH) (Cambray and Wilson, 2007; Catala et al., 1995; Charrier et al., 1999), contains progenitors for the ventral neural tube, somites and notochord (Cambray and Wilson, 2002; McGrew et al., 2008). The CNH is continuous with the most recently formed neural tube and notochord (Fig. 2C-D′). By contrast, the tissue immediately caudal to the CNH exclusively produces somites in mouse and chick (McGrew et al., 2008).
  • Added
    • + chordo neural hinge taxon notes In mouse and chick, the derivative of the NSB (with a minor contribution from the CLE), the `chordo-neural-hinge’(CNH) (Cambray and Wilson, 2007; Catala et al., 1995; Charrier et al., 1999), contains progenitors for the ventral neural tube, somites and notochord (Cambray and Wilson, 2002; McGrew et al., 2008). The CNH is continuous with the most recently formed neural tube and notochord. By contrast, the tissue immediately caudal to the CNH exclusively produces somites in mouse and chick (McGrew et al., 2008).

Changes for: internal spermatic fascia

Changes for: gubernacular bulb, intra-abdominal part

Changes for: gubernacular bulb, extra-abdominal part

Changes for: sacral vertebra pre-cartilage condensation

Changes for: sacral vertebra cartilage element

Changes for: blubber

  • Deleted
    • - blubber location notes Lipid-rich, collagen fiber–laced blubber comprises the hypodermis and covers the whole body, except for parts of the appendages, strongly attached to the musculature and skeleton by highly organized, fan-shaped networks of tendons and ligaments. It can comprise up to 50% of the body mass of some marine mammals during some points in their lives, and can range from two inches (5 cm) thick in dolphins and smaller whales, to more than 12 inches (30 cm)thick in some bigger whales, such as right and bowhead whales
  • Added
    • + blubber location notes Lipid-rich, collagen fiber-laced blubber comprises the hypodermis and covers the whole body, except for parts of the appendages, strongly attached to the musculature and skeleton by highly organized, fan-shaped networks of tendons and ligaments. It can comprise up to 50% of the body mass of some marine mammals during some points in their lives, and can range from two inches (5 cm) thick in dolphins and smaller whales, to more than 12 inches (30 cm)thick in some bigger whales, such as right and bowhead whales

Changes for: hermaphroditic organism

Changes for: vibrissa unit

Changes for: Nobelian rod

Changes for: reproductive structure

Changes for: granulosa cell layer

Changes for: os penis

Changes for: scrotal sweat gland

Changes for: os clitoris

Changes for: hemipenis keratinized epithelium

Changes for: latissimus dorsi process

Changes for: pharyngeal apophysis

  • Deleted
    • - pharyngeal apophysis definition Ventral process on the neurocranium for the articulation of upper pharyngeal bones. It is variably composed of the parasphenoid, basioccipital, and prootic depending on the species. From: Greenwood, PH (1978). A review of the pharyngeal hypophysis and its significance in the classification of African cichlid fishes. Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist. (Zool.) 33: 297-323. { database cross reference=PHENOSCAPE:Wasila }
  • Added
    • + pharyngeal apophysis definition Ventral process on the neurocranium for the articulation of upper pharyngeal bones. It is variably composed of the parasphenoid, basioccipital, and prootic depending on the species. From: Greenwood, PH (1978). A review of the pharyngeal hypophysis and its significance in the classification of African cichlid fishes. Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist. (Zool.) 33: 297-323. { database cross reference=PHENOSCAPE:Wasila }

Changes for: mucosa of uterine tube

Changes for: esophagogastric junction

Changes for: inter-basipterygium joint

Changes for: eggshell

Changes for: finished bone surface

Changes for: unfinished bone surface

Changes for: duct of epididymis

Changes for: ovarian ligament

Changes for: suspensory ligament of testis

Changes for: placenta metrial gland

Changes for: rugal fold of vagina

Changes for: nucleus of pontine reticular formation

Changes for: caudal vertebra endochondral element

Changes for: anatomical line

Changes for: dorsal inclinator muscle

Changes for: decidua parietalis

Changes for: nephrogenic mesenchyme

  • Deleted
    • - nephrogenic mesenchyme comment [DMK Nephron]](The detailed events associated with the differentiation of the nephrogenic mesenchyme are somewhat complex. It has been suggested that each terminal branch of the ureteric bud stimulates the associated cap mesenchyme tissue to form a renal vesicle (the most primitive stage of nephron development: a stage I nephron). This then elongates, becomes a comma-shaped and then an S-shaped body (stage II nephron), and makes contact with and fuses with the distal component of the ureteric bud. The latter then forms the collecting duct. One fold of the S-shaped body gives rise to Bowman’s capsule (also termed the glomerular capsule). Soon afterwards, endothelial cells invade to make a capillary knot-like outgrowth, the glomerular tuft, which goes on to form the glomerulus. The inner epithelial layer of the Bowman’s capsule (also called the visceral epithelium, or podocyte layer because it consists of podocytes) is closely apposed to the endothelial glomerulus. Together, the Bowman’s capsule and the glomerulus comprise the definitive renal corpuscle. The rest of the nephron elongates to form components of the proximal tubule, the loop of Henle and the distal tubule. The distal pole of the developing nephron connects to the ureteric bud that induced it at an early stage of nephron/ collecting duct development, before differentiation of the proximal tubule, the loop of Henle and the distal tubule are complete. This connection allows the excretory products produced by the kidney to be removed and subsequently transferred, via the ureter, into the bladder where they are stored until it is appropriate to empty the bladder. [http://www.gudmap.org/About/Tutorial/DevMUS.html#DMK_Nephron])
  • Added
    • + nephrogenic mesenchyme comment [DMK Nephron]](The detailed events associated with the differentiation of the nephrogenic mesenchyme are somewhat complex. It has been suggested that each terminal branch of the ureteric bud stimulates the associated cap mesenchyme tissue to form a renal vesicle (the most primitive stage of nephron development: a stage I nephron). This then elongates, becomes a comma-shaped and then an S-shaped body (stage II nephron), and makes contact with and fuses with the distal component of the ureteric bud. The latter then forms the collecting duct. One fold of the S-shaped body gives rise to Bowman’s capsule (also termed the glomerular capsule). Soon afterwards, endothelial cells invade to make a capillary knot-like outgrowth, the glomerular tuft, which goes on to form the glomerulus. The inner epithelial layer of the Bowman’s capsule (also called the visceral epithelium, or podocyte layer because it consists of podocytes) is closely apposed to the endothelial glomerulus. Together, the Bowman’s capsule and the glomerulus comprise the definitive renal corpuscle. The rest of the nephron elongates to form components of the proximal tubule, the loop of Henle and the distal tubule. The distal pole of the developing nephron connects to the ureteric bud that induced it at an early stage of nephron/ collecting duct development, before differentiation of the proximal tubule, the loop of Henle and the distal tubule are complete. This connection allows the excretory products produced by the kidney to be removed and subsequently transferred, via the ureter, into the bladder where they are stored until it is appropriate to empty the bladder. [http://www.gudmap.org/About/Tutorial/DevMUS.html#DMK_Nephron])

Changes for: cardiac skeleton

Changes for: median fin skeleton

Changes for: crus of penis

Changes for: male preputial gland

Changes for: crus of clitoris

Changes for: adventitia of seminal vesicle

Changes for: adventitia of epididymis

Changes for: muscle layer of epididymis

Changes for: appendix epididymis

Changes for: muscle layer of oviduct

Changes for: tunica vaginalis testis

Changes for: appendix testis

Changes for: septum of scrotum

Changes for: muscular layer of vagina

Changes for: corpus cavernosum clitoridis

Changes for: dorsal fin ceratotrichial spine (elasmobranchs)

Changes for: labium majora

Changes for: recessus basilaris

  • Deleted
    • - recessus basilaris definition An opening of the otic duct within the inner ear. The recessus basilaris can open to the saccule (in frogs) or the lagena (in salamanders and caecilians). The sensory epithelium of the recessus basilaris is the basilar papilla (or papilla basilaris). Reference: Lewis, E.R. and R.E. Lombard. 1988. The amphibian inner ear. Pp. 93–123 in Fritszch, B., et al. (eds.), The Evolution of the Amphibian Auditory System. Wiley & Sons. [curated by D. Blackburn] { database cross reference=PHENOSCAPE:wd }
  • Added
    • + recessus basilaris definition An opening of the otic duct within the inner ear. The recessus basilaris can open to the saccule (in frogs) or the lagena (in salamanders and caecilians). The sensory epithelium of the recessus basilaris is the basilar papilla (or papilla basilaris). Reference: Lewis, E.R. and R.E. Lombard. 1988. The amphibian inner ear. Pp. 93-123 in Fritszch, B., et al. (eds.), The Evolution of the Amphibian Auditory System. Wiley & Sons. [curated by D. Blackburn] { database cross reference=PHENOSCAPE:wd }

Changes for: orbital fat pad

Changes for: labium minora

Changes for: posterior fontanelle

  • Deleted
    • - posterior fontanelle taxon notes In humans it generally closes in 6–8 weeks from birth. A delay in closure is associated with congential hypothyroidism
  • Added
    • + posterior fontanelle taxon notes In humans it generally closes in 6-8 weeks from birth. A delay in closure is associated with congential hypothyroidism

Changes for: spongiotrophoblast layer

Changes for: Rathke’s pouch

Changes for: dorsal erector muscle

Changes for: vagina stroma

Changes for: placental caruncle

Changes for: placentome of cotyledonary placenta

Changes for: gubernacular cord

Changes for: renal cortex interstitium

  • Deleted
    • - renal cortex interstitium structure notes In the renal cortex, interstitial fibroblasts produce erythropoietin and are distinguished from other interstitial cells by their prominent F-actin cytoskeleton, abundance of rough endoplasmic reticulum, and by ecto-5′-nucleotidase expression in their plasma membrane. The resident dendritic cells belong to the mononuclear phagocyte system and fulfil a sentinel function. They are characterized by their expression of MHC class II and CD11c. { source=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18575881 }
  • Added
    • + renal cortex interstitium structure notes In the renal cortex, interstitial fibroblasts produce erythropoietin and are distinguished from other interstitial cells by their prominent F-actin cytoskeleton, abundance of rough endoplasmic reticulum, and by ecto-5’-nucleotidase expression in their plasma membrane. The resident dendritic cells belong to the mononuclear phagocyte system and fulfil a sentinel function. They are characterized by their expression of MHC class II and CD11c. { source=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18575881 }

Changes for: dorsal fin basal cartilage (elasmobranchs)

Changes for: skin of clitoris

Changes for: posterior dorsal fin basal cartilage (elasmobranchs)

Changes for: anterior dorsal fin basal cartilage (elasmobranchs)

Changes for: conjunctival sac

Changes for: duct of seminal vesicle

Changes for: pontine raphe nucleus

Changes for: main ciliary ganglion

  • Deleted
    • - main ciliary ganglion external definition The ciliary ganglion is a parasympathetic ganglion located in the posterior orbit. It measures 1–2 millimeters in diameter and contains approximately 2,500 neurons. Preganglionic axons from the Edinger-Westphal nucleus form synapses with these cells. The postganglionic axons run in the short ciliary nerves and innervate two eye muscles: the sphincter pupillae constricts the pupil, known as Miosis. The opposite, Mydriasis, is the dilation of the pupil. the ciliaris muscle contracts, releasing tension on the Zonular Fibers, making the lens more convex, also known as accommodation. Both of these muscles are involuntary – they are controlled by the autonomic nervous system. It is one of four parasympathetic ganglia of the head and neck.. [WP,unvetted][Wikipedia:Ciliary_ganglion]. { source=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ciliary_ganglion }
  • Added
    • + main ciliary ganglion SubClassOf part of some ocular adnexa
    • + main ciliary ganglion external definition The ciliary ganglion is a parasympathetic ganglion located in the posterior orbit. It measures 1-2 millimeters in diameter and contains approximately 2,500 neurons. Preganglionic axons from the Edinger-Westphal nucleus form synapses with these cells. The postganglionic axons run in the short ciliary nerves and innervate two eye muscles: the sphincter pupillae constricts the pupil, known as Miosis. The opposite, Mydriasis, is the dilation of the pupil. the ciliaris muscle contracts, releasing tension on the Zonular Fibers, making the lens more convex, also known as accommodation. Both of these muscles are involuntary - they are controlled by the autonomic nervous system. It is one of four parasympathetic ganglia of the head and neck.. [WP,unvetted][Wikipedia:Ciliary_ganglion]. { source=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ciliary_ganglion }

Changes for: interventricular septum membranous part

Changes for: muscular coat of seminal vesicle

Changes for: stratum corneum of epidermis

  • Deleted
    • - stratum corneum of epidermis external definition this skin layer is composed mainly of dead cells that lack nuclei. As these dead cells slough off on the surface in the thin air-filled stratum disjunctum, they are continuously replaced by new cells from the stratum germinativum (basale). In the human forearm, for example, about 1300 cells/cm2/hr are shed. This outer layer that is sloughed off is also known as the stratum dysjunctum. Cells of the stratum corneum contain keratin, a protein that helps keep the skin hydrated by preventing water evaporation. These cells can also absorb water, further aiding in hydration, and explaining why humans and other animals experience wrinkling of the skin on the fingers and toes (‘pruning’) when immersed in water for prolonged periods. In addition, this layer is responsible for the ‘spring back’ or stretchy properties of skin. A weak glutenous protein bond pulls the skin back to its natural shape. The thickness of the stratum corneum varies according to the amount of protection and/or grip required by a region of the body. For example, the hands are typically used to grasp objects, requiring the palms to be covered with a thick stratum corneum. In a similar manner, the sole of the foot is prone to injury, and so it is protected with a thick stratum corneum layer. In general, the stratum corneum contains 15 to 20 layers of dead cells. The stratum corneum has a thickness between 10 and 40 μm. n reptiles, the stratum corneum is permanent, and is replaced only during times of rapid growth, in a process called ecdysis or moulting. The stratum corneum in reptiles contains beta-keratin, which provides a much more rigid skin layer. { source=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stratum_corneum }

Changes for: Mullerian tubercle

Changes for: peristaltic circulatory vessel

Changes for: amniotic ectoderm

  • Deleted
    • - amniotic ectoderm editor note we make the germ layer relationship develops_from, as currently the germ layers are declared to be purely embryonic. TODO - check. WP:Amnion - In the human embryo the earliest stages of the formation of the amnion have not been observed; in the youngest embryo which has been studied the amnion was already present as a closed sac, and appears in the inner cell-mass as a cavity. This cavity is roofed in by a single stratum of flattened, ectodermal cells, the amniotic ectoderm, and its floor consists of the prismatic ectoderm of the embryonic disk—the continuity between the roof and floor being established at the margin of the embryonic disk. Outside the amniotic ectoderm is a thin layer of mesoderm, which is continuous with that of the somatopleure and is connected by the body-stalk with the mesodermal lining of the chorion.
  • Added
    • + amniotic ectoderm editor note we make the germ layer relationship develops_from, as currently the germ layers are declared to be purely embryonic. TODO - check. WP:Amnion - In the human embryo the earliest stages of the formation of the amnion have not been observed; in the youngest embryo which has been studied the amnion was already present as a closed sac, and appears in the inner cell-mass as a cavity. This cavity is roofed in by a single stratum of flattened, ectodermal cells, the amniotic ectoderm, and its floor consists of the prismatic ectoderm of the embryonic disk-the continuity between the roof and floor being established at the margin of the embryonic disk. Outside the amniotic ectoderm is a thin layer of mesoderm, which is continuous with that of the somatopleure and is connected by the body-stalk with the mesodermal lining of the chorion.

Changes for: amniotic mesoderm

  • Deleted
    • - amniotic mesoderm editor note we make the germ layer relationship develops_from, as currently the germ layers are declared to be purely embryonic. TODO - check. WP:Amnion - In the human embryo the earliest stages of the formation of the amnion have not been observed; in the youngest embryo which has been studied the amnion was already present as a closed sac, and appears in the inner cell-mass as a cavity. This cavity is roofed in by a single stratum of flattened, ectodermal cells, the amniotic ectoderm, and its floor consists of the prismatic ectoderm of the embryonic disk—the continuity between the roof and floor being established at the margin of the embryonic disk. Outside the amniotic ectoderm is a thin layer of mesoderm, which is continuous with that of the somatopleure and is connected by the body-stalk with the mesodermal lining of the chorion.
  • Added
    • + amniotic mesoderm editor note we make the germ layer relationship develops_from, as currently the germ layers are declared to be purely embryonic. TODO - check. WP:Amnion - In the human embryo the earliest stages of the formation of the amnion have not been observed; in the youngest embryo which has been studied the amnion was already present as a closed sac, and appears in the inner cell-mass as a cavity. This cavity is roofed in by a single stratum of flattened, ectodermal cells, the amniotic ectoderm, and its floor consists of the prismatic ectoderm of the embryonic disk-the continuity between the roof and floor being established at the margin of the embryonic disk. Outside the amniotic ectoderm is a thin layer of mesoderm, which is continuous with that of the somatopleure and is connected by the body-stalk with the mesodermal lining of the chorion.

Changes for: lower part of vagina

Changes for: muscle layer of spongiose part of urethra

Changes for: decidua capsularis

Changes for: raphe of scrotum

Changes for: corona of glans penis

Changes for: base of glans penis

Changes for: dorsal depressor muscle

Changes for: gland of ocular region

Changes for: tapetum

Changes for: efferent duct epithelium

Changes for: gubernaculum (male or female)

Changes for: sacral vertebra endochondral element

Changes for: caput epididymis

Changes for: corpus epididymis

Changes for: cervical vertebra endochondral element

Changes for: thoracic vertebra endochondral element

Changes for: cauda epididymis

Changes for: lumbar vertebra endochondral element

Changes for: extraembryonic ectoderm

  • Deleted
    • - extraembryonic ectoderm editor note we make the germ layer relationship develops_from, as currently the germ layers are declared to be purely embryonic. TODO - check. WP:Amnion - In the human embryo the earliest stages of the formation of the amnion have not been observed; in the youngest embryo which has been studied the amnion was already present as a closed sac, and appears in the inner cell-mass as a cavity. This cavity is roofed in by a single stratum of flattened, ectodermal cells, the amniotic ectoderm, and its floor consists of the prismatic ectoderm of the embryonic disk—the continuity between the roof and floor being established at the margin of the embryonic disk. Outside the amniotic ectoderm is a thin layer of mesoderm, which is continuous with that of the somatopleure and is connected by the body-stalk with the mesodermal lining of the chorion.
  • Added
    • + extraembryonic ectoderm editor note we make the germ layer relationship develops_from, as currently the germ layers are declared to be purely embryonic. TODO - check. WP:Amnion - In the human embryo the earliest stages of the formation of the amnion have not been observed; in the youngest embryo which has been studied the amnion was already present as a closed sac, and appears in the inner cell-mass as a cavity. This cavity is roofed in by a single stratum of flattened, ectodermal cells, the amniotic ectoderm, and its floor consists of the prismatic ectoderm of the embryonic disk-the continuity between the roof and floor being established at the margin of the embryonic disk. Outside the amniotic ectoderm is a thin layer of mesoderm, which is continuous with that of the somatopleure and is connected by the body-stalk with the mesodermal lining of the chorion.

Changes for: ejaculatory duct epithelium

Changes for: anatomical point

Changes for: anterior limiting lamina of cornea

  • Deleted
    • - anterior limiting lamina of cornea taxon notes Compared to terrestial animals, the cornea of zebrafish is relatively flat. It consists of nonpigmented, stratified squamous nonkeratinizing epithelial cells, attached to a thick basement membrane that is considered to be analogous to the Bowman’s membrane in mammals
  • Added
    • + anterior limiting lamina of cornea taxon notes Compared to terrestial animals, the cornea of zebrafish is relatively flat. It consists of nonpigmented, stratified squamous nonkeratinizing epithelial cells, attached to a thick basement membrane that is considered to be analogous to the Bowman’s membrane in mammals

Changes for: pronephric duct

  • Added
    • + pronephric duct comment The pronephric duct collects the filtrate from the pronephric tubules and opens to the exterior of the pronephric kidney[GOC:mtg_kidney_jan10, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15647339, XAO:0000063, ZFA:0000150]

Report for properties

ObjectProperty objects lost from source: 0

ObjectProperty objects new in target: 0

Changed ObjectProperty objects: 5

Changes for: part of

Changes for: has part

Changes for: capable of part of

Changes for: capable of

Changes for: composed primarily of

January 26, 2016 |

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