2015-06-22 release

This version is primarily a maintenance release, with some improvements to the skeletal system and a new term for the newly discovered nervous system lymph vasculature
2015-06-22 release image
  • circulatory/neuro
    • Added new class for lymph vessel of dura mater; see http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature14432
    • made ganglion a cell cluster organ rather than cell cluster. 702
  • xrefs and lexical properties
    • replaced multiple MESH tree numbers with IDs. 698. Thanks dhimmel
    • Migrated mouse anatomy tracker from sourceforge to github and rerouted tickets
    • Added multiple github tickets URLs to relevant terms
    • Changed FBbt xref for proctodeum. Fixes 685. Thanks mmc64 dosumis ANiknejad
    • fixed formatting of def xrefs; previously in the obo these were not correctly separated leading to problems with the OWL axiom annotations
    • FEED xrefs
  • skeletal and body parts
    • nose job:
      • turbinal improvements based on PMID:25312359
      • what was called “olfactory appartus” is now simply “nose”
    • pelvic region part of pelvis. Fixes 706
    • Linked bony and skeletal element projections. Fixes 107
    • procoracoid def. Fixes 104
    • lunate->intermedium. fixes 113
    • scaphoid->radiale. fixes 112
    • added has_quality to spine appendage. 700
    • added spine as syn from projection. 700
  • Integument
  • Constraints and axiomatization
    • Added multiple axioms following the DisjointUnionOver pattern aka JEPD mereological sums.
    • disjoint_union_over; feathers; fixing over-zealous constraint; there are some structures like tendons that are both part of the skeletal system (not skeleton) and muscle system
    • TCs for lung. Issue 701

Ontology Diff Report

Original Ontology

  • IRI: http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/uberon.owl
  • VersionIRI: http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/uberon/releases/2015-05-25/uberon.owl

New Ontology

  • IRI: http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/uberon.owl
  • VersionIRI: http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/uberon/releases/2015-06-22/uberon.owl

Report for classes

Class objects lost from source: 0

Class objects new in target: 5

New Class : outer root sheath companion layer

New Class : dura mater lymph vessel

New Class : nasal turbinal

New Class : hair canal

New Class : hair peg

Changed Class objects: 2302

Changes for: iliac spine

Changes for: digit 3 digitopodial skeleton

Changes for: digit 4 digitopodial skeleton

Changes for: digit 5 digitopodial skeleton

Changes for: digit 2 digitopodial skeleton

Changes for: digit 1 digitopodial skeleton

Changes for: anatomical conduit space

Changes for: pericalcarine cortex

  • Deleted
    • - pericalcarine cortex definition Component of the parietal lobe. The rostral boundary of the pericalcarine cortex was the first appearance of the calcarine sulcus whereas the caudal boundary was the most posterior coronal slice where the calcarine sulcus was visualized. The medial and lateral boundaries were the medial portion of the temporal and occipital cortices and the inferomedial end of the calcarine sulcus respectively (Christine Fennema-Notestine). { database cross reference=NIFSTD:birnlex_1059 }
  • Added
    • + pericalcarine cortex definition Component of the parietal lobe. The rostral boundary of the pericalcarine cortex was the first appearance of the calcarine sulcus whereas the caudal boundary was the most posterior coronal slice where the calcarine sulcus was visualized. The medial and lateral boundaries were the medial portion of the temporal and occipital cortices and the inferomedial end of the calcarine sulcus respectively (Christine Fennema-Notestine). { database cross reference=NIFSTD:birnlex_1059 }

Changes for: buttock

Changes for: female pubococcygeus muscle

Changes for: serrated projection of ctenactinium

Changes for: medial orbital frontal cortex

Changes for: parietal serous membrane

Changes for: visceral serous membrane

Changes for: male mammary gland duct

Changes for: jaw region

Changes for: maxillary tooth

  • Deleted
    • - maxillary tooth curator notes this ontology also contains a class for ‘tooth of upper jaw’. This is not equivalent to ‘maxillary tooth’ in a multi-species context, because many vertebrates have other tooth-bearing bones in the upper jaw[UBERON:cjm]
  • Added
    • + maxillary tooth curator notes this ontology also contains a class for ‘tooth of upper jaw’. This is not equivalent to ‘maxillary tooth’ in a multi-species context, because many vertebrates have other tooth-bearing bones in the upper jaw[http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6601-2165]

Changes for: lenticular process of incus bone

Changes for: palatine prong

Changes for: anterior process of the palatoquadrate

Changes for: peripheral plate of carapace

Changes for: pleural plate of carapace

Changes for: pontocerebellar tract

Changes for: hindlimb intermedium

Changes for: trunk vertebra

Changes for: primary olfactory cortex

  • Deleted
    • - primary olfactory cortex definition The term primary olfactory areas in the primate, refers to a group of structures defined by connectivity, namely, structures that receive axons from the olfactory bulb. They include the anterior olfactory nucleus, the anterior perforated substance, the rostral part of the medial amygdaloid nucleus (anterior cortical nucleus of amygdala), and structures in the anterior part of the parahippocampal gyrus, namely, the prepyriform area, most of the periamygdaloid area, and the rostral part of the entorhinal area (Price-90). Note that some authors have regarded the olfactory bulb itself as the primary olfactory area and the areas to which it projects as secondary (Anthoney-94). In the mouse (Dong-2004) and the rat (Swanson-2004), olfactory areas include the olfactory bulb, accessory olfactory bulb, anterior olfactory nucleus, tenia tecta, prepyriform area, postpiriform transition area, piriform amygdaloid area, nucleus of lateral olfactory tract, and cortical amygdaloid area. { database cross reference=NIFSTD:birnlex_2706 }
  • Added
    • + primary olfactory cortex definition The term primary olfactory areas in the primate, refers to a group of structures defined by connectivity, namely, structures that receive axons from the olfactory bulb. They include the anterior olfactory nucleus, the anterior perforated substance, the rostral part of the medial amygdaloid nucleus (anterior cortical nucleus of amygdala), and structures in the anterior part of the parahippocampal gyrus, namely, the prepyriform area, most of the periamygdaloid area, and the rostral part of the entorhinal area (Price-90). Note that some authors have regarded the olfactory bulb itself as the primary olfactory area and the areas to which it projects as secondary (Anthoney-94). In the mouse (Dong-2004) and the rat (Swanson-2004), olfactory areas include the olfactory bulb, accessory olfactory bulb, anterior olfactory nucleus, tenia tecta, prepyriform area, postpiriform transition area, piriform amygdaloid area, nucleus of lateral olfactory tract, and cortical amygdaloid area. { database cross reference=NIFSTD:birnlex_2706 }

Changes for: digestive system element

Changes for: basihyal lingual process

Changes for: surangular bone

Changes for: patagialis muscle

Changes for: interclavicle

Changes for: primary superior olive

  • Deleted
    • - primary superior olive definition Part of the superior olivary complex of nuclei in the caudal pontine tegmentum, situated within the trapezoid body in humans. (Brodal, Neurological Anatomy, 3rd edition, 1981, pg 617). In many species, it comprises a medial superior olivary nucleus and a lateral superior olivary nucleus. { database cross reference=NIFSTD:birnlex_900 }
  • Added
    • + primary superior olive definition Part of the superior olivary complex of nuclei in the caudal pontine tegmentum, situated within the trapezoid body in humans. (Brodal, Neurological Anatomy, 3rd edition, 1981, pg 617). In many species, it comprises a medial superior olivary nucleus and a lateral superior olivary nucleus. { database cross reference=NIFSTD:birnlex_900 }

Changes for: rostral anterior cingulate cortex

  • Deleted
    • - rostral anterior cingulate cortex definition Component of the cingulate cortex. The rostral boundary was the first appearance of the cingulate sulcus (inferior to the superior frontal sulcus) whereas the caudal boundary was the first appearance of the genu of the corpus callosum. The medial boundary was the medial aspect of the cortex. The supero-lateral boundary was the superior frontal gyrus whereas the infero-lateral boundary was defined as the medial division of the orbitofrontal gyrus (Christine Fennema-Notestine). { database cross reference=NIFSTD:birnlex_975 }
  • Added
    • + rostral anterior cingulate cortex definition Component of the cingulate cortex. The rostral boundary was the first appearance of the cingulate sulcus (inferior to the superior frontal sulcus) whereas the caudal boundary was the first appearance of the genu of the corpus callosum. The medial boundary was the medial aspect of the cortex. The supero-lateral boundary was the superior frontal gyrus whereas the infero-lateral boundary was defined as the medial division of the orbitofrontal gyrus (Christine Fennema-Notestine). { database cross reference=NIFSTD:birnlex_975 }

Changes for: colic flexure

Changes for: tear film

Changes for: inferior palpebral branch of infra-orbital nerve

Changes for: palpebral branch of infra-orbital nerve

Changes for: lower eyelid nerve

Changes for: upper eyelid nerve

Changes for: ventral thalamic fasciculus

  • Deleted
    • - ventral thalamic fasciculus definition The thalamic fasciculus is a component of the subthalamus. It is sometimes considered synonymous with ‘field H1 of Forel’. Nerve fibres forming a composite bundle containing cerebellothalamic (crossed) and pallidothalamic (uncrossed) fibres that is insinuated between the thalamus and zona incerta. The thalamic fasciculus consists of the joint fibers of the ansa lenticularis and the lenticular fasciculus, coming from different portions of the medial globus pallidus, before they jointly enter the ventral lateral nucleus of the thalamus. { database cross reference=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thalamic_fasciculus,Wikipedia:Thalamic_fasciculus }
  • Added
    • + ventral thalamic fasciculus definition The thalamic fasciculus is a component of the subthalamus. It is sometimes considered synonymous with ‘field H1 of Forel’. Nerve fibres forming a composite bundle containing cerebellothalamic (crossed) and pallidothalamic (uncrossed) fibres that is insinuated between the thalamus and zona incerta. The thalamic fasciculus consists of the joint fibers of the ansa lenticularis and the lenticular fasciculus, coming from different portions of the medial globus pallidus, before they jointly enter the ventral lateral nucleus of the thalamus. { database cross reference=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thalamic_fasciculus }

Changes for: caudal anterior cingulate cortex

  • Deleted
    • - caudal anterior cingulate cortex definition Component of the cingulate cortex. The rostral boundary was the first appearance of the genu of the corpus callosum whereas the caudal boundary was established as the first appearance of the mammillary bodies. The medial boundary was the medial aspect of the cortex. The supero-lateral boundary was the superior frontal gyrus whereas the infero-lateral boundary was the corpus callosum (Christine Fennema-Notestine). { database cross reference=NIFSTD:birnlex_967 }
  • Added
    • + caudal anterior cingulate cortex definition Component of the cingulate cortex. The rostral boundary was the first appearance of the genu of the corpus callosum whereas the caudal boundary was established as the first appearance of the mammillary bodies. The medial boundary was the medial aspect of the cortex. The supero-lateral boundary was the superior frontal gyrus whereas the infero-lateral boundary was the corpus callosum (Christine Fennema-Notestine). { database cross reference=NIFSTD:birnlex_967 }

Changes for: medial subnucleus of solitary tract

Changes for: nucleus of spinal cord

Changes for: dorsal commissural nucleus of spinal cord

Changes for: feather shaft

Changes for: feather muscle

Changes for: manual digit 5 plus metapodial segment

Changes for: manual digit 4 plus metapodial segment

Changes for: manual digit 3 plus metapodial segment

Changes for: manual digit 2 plus metapodial segment

Changes for: pedal digit 5 plus metapodial segment

Changes for: pedal digit 4 plus metapodial segment

Changes for: pedal digit 1 plus metapodial segment

Changes for: pedal digit 3 plus metapodial segment

Changes for: pedal digit 2 plus metapodial segment

Changes for: pedal digit plus metapodial segment

Changes for: manual digit 1 plus metapodial segment

Changes for: inner epidermal layer of feather follicle

Changes for: outer epidermal layer of feather follicle

Changes for: non-neurogenic ectodermal placode

Changes for: superficial fascia

Changes for: atrioventricular region

Changes for: collection of collagen fibrils

Changes for: midcarpal joint

Changes for: palatoquadrate arch

Changes for: vertebra pre-cartilage condensation

Changes for: vertebra cartilage element

Changes for: gubernacular bulb, intra-abdominal part

Changes for: gubernacular bulb, extra-abdominal part

Changes for: thoracic vertebra 8

Changes for: distal mesopodial endochondral element

Changes for: coracoclavicular ligament

Changes for: medial olfactory stria

Changes for: caudal vertebra endochondral element

Changes for: anterior perforated substance

  • Deleted
    • - anterior perforated substance definition Regional part of telencephalon lying on the basal surface and bounded by the olfactory trigone rostrally, the diagonal band medially and caudally and the prepiriform cortex laterally. It is characterized by many perforations caused by small blood vessels entering the gray matter (Meyer et al., J. Comp. Neurol 284: 405, 1989). { database cross reference=NIFSTD:birnlex_1096 }
  • Added
    • + anterior perforated substance definition Regional part of telencephalon lying on the basal surface and bounded by the olfactory trigone rostrally, the diagonal band medially and caudally and the prepiriform cortex laterally. It is characterized by many perforations caused by small blood vessels entering the gray matter (Meyer et al., J. Comp. Neurol 284: 405, 1989). { database cross reference=NIFSTD:birnlex_1096 }

Changes for: mammary lobe

Changes for: anterior ramus of cleithrum

Changes for: transverse process of lumbar vertebra

Changes for: lumbar rib

Changes for: cervical rib

Changes for: transverse process of cervical vertebra

Changes for: glabella skin

Changes for: glabella region

Changes for: buccal vestibule

  • Deleted
    • - buccal vestibule definition The buccal vestibule is the space external to teeth and gums and internal to lips and cheeks. The proportion of its walls formed by the lips varies according to species depending upon their feeding action. The horse like most herbivores has a relatively small opening. PPP The buccal vestibule opens to the outside rostrally via a U shaped slit the oral fissure. PPP When the mouth is closed the buccal vestibule and the mouth cavity proper connect via spaces between and behind the teeth. These allow free communication between the two sides of the vestibule. PPP Several salivary ducts open into the dorso caudal part of the vestibule: PPP Parotid gland - opens into the cheek on the small parotid papilla, opposite to the caudal part of upper 4 th premolar teeth PPP Zygomatic gland - the main duct opens in the caudal part of the upper 1 st molar tooth on a small papilla near the vestibular fornix PPP Submucous glands - minimal in number, confined to the lower lip and adjacent part of the cheek. Secretion occurs through about 10 openings located near the fornix of the vestibule. { database cross reference=MURDOCH:240 }
  • Added
    • + buccal vestibule definition The buccal vestibule is the space external to teeth and gums and internal to lips and cheeks. The proportion of its walls formed by the lips varies according to species depending upon their feeding action. The horse like most herbivores has a relatively small opening. PPP The buccal vestibule opens to the outside rostrally via a U shaped slit the oral fissure. PPP When the mouth is closed the buccal vestibule and the mouth cavity proper connect via spaces between and behind the teeth. These allow free communication between the two sides of the vestibule. PPP Several salivary ducts open into the dorso caudal part of the vestibule: PPP Parotid gland - opens into the cheek on the small parotid papilla, opposite to the caudal part of upper 4 th premolar teeth PPP Zygomatic gland - the main duct opens in the caudal part of the upper 1 st molar tooth on a small papilla near the vestibular fornix PPP Submucous glands - minimal in number, confined to the lower lip and adjacent part of the cheek. Secretion occurs through about 10 openings located near the fornix of the vestibule. { database cross reference=MURDOCH:240 }

Changes for: morphological feature

Changes for: areolar sweat gland

Changes for: hindbrain commissure

Changes for: periovarian fat pad

Changes for: monotreme bill

Changes for: tail fat pad

Changes for: rugal fold of scrotum

Changes for: ilial ridge

Changes for: Nobelian rod

Changes for: developing neuroepithelium

Changes for: colorectum

Changes for: rectum smooth muscle tissue

Changes for: muscle layer of rectum

Changes for: head taste bud

Changes for: esophageal taste bud

Changes for: parafoveal part of retina

Changes for: fin taste bud

Changes for: perifoveal part of retina

Changes for: mouth roof taste bud

Changes for: pharyngeal taste bud

Changes for: autonomic nerve

Changes for: foveola of retina

Changes for: trunk taste bud

Changes for: opisthosome

Changes for: trophosome

Changes for: cranial neuron projection bundle

Changes for: integumental taste bud

Changes for: lip taste bud

Changes for: barbel taste bud

Changes for: medial forebrain bundle

Changes for: mammary gland

Changes for: corpus spongiosum of penis

Changes for: colostrum

Changes for: milk

Changes for: epithelium of trachea

Changes for: habenula

Changes for: pineal body

Changes for: optic tract

Changes for: habenular commissure

Changes for: lateral hypothalamic nucleus

Changes for: lateral geniculate body

Changes for: Verson’s gland

Changes for: white pulp of spleen

  • Deleted
    • - white pulp of spleen definition the parenchymatous tissue of the spleen that surrounds splenic blood vessels, consists of compact masses of lymphatic cells and is where foreign material removed from the blood is used to initiate an immune reaction that results in the production of antibodies { database cross reference=MP:0002357,MGI:csmith }
  • Added

Changes for: terminal bronchiole epithelium

Changes for: epithelium of nasopharynx

Changes for: primary subdivision of skull

Changes for: gular region

Changes for: pretectal region

  • Deleted
    • - pretectal region external definition Region of brain lying between the midbrain tectum and the thalamus (Sefton and Dreher, in Paxinos, G The rat central nervous system, 1995, pg 859), Situated at the level of poterior commissure and just rostral to the superior colliculus (Brodal, Neurological Anatomy, 3rd ed, 1981, pg 542) { source=NIFSTD:nlx_59721 }
  • Added

Changes for: medial habenular nucleus

  • Deleted
  • Added
    • + medial habenular nucleus definition The habenular nuclei comprise a small group of nuclei that are part of the epithalamus of the diencephalon, situated at the posterior end of the thalamus, on its upper surface. The habenular nuclei are typically divided into: lateral habenular nucleus medial habenular nucleus The pineal gland is attached to the brain in this region. Nerve impulses from the habenular nuclei are transmitted to the septal nuclei via the stria medullaris, which is found on the medial surface of the thalamus. { database cross reference=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Habenular_nuclei }

Changes for: septomaxilla bone

Changes for: venule

Changes for: nasal suture

Changes for: serum

Changes for: epithelium of esophagus

Changes for: bile

Changes for: gastric juice

Changes for: blood plasma

Changes for: semen

Changes for: elastic cartilage tissue

Changes for: olfactory epithelium

Changes for: sternocostal joint

Changes for: iliopsoas

Changes for: middle cervical ganglion

Changes for: fibrocartilage

Changes for: hyaline cartilage tissue

Changes for: feces

Changes for: corneal endothelium

Changes for: endothelium

Changes for: superior cervical ganglion

Changes for: humeroradial joint

Changes for: arteriole

Changes for: crypt of Lieberkuhn

Changes for: capillary

Changes for: blood vessel

Changes for: stifle joint

Changes for: intercarpal joint

Changes for: axial skeletal system

Changes for: post-cranial axial skeletal system

Changes for: layer of muscle tissue

Changes for: submucosa of digestive tract

Changes for: meningeal vein

Changes for: skeletal musculature

Changes for: jejunal artery

Changes for: organ system subdivision

Changes for: laryngeal prominence

Changes for: vocal organ

Changes for: ypsiloid cartilage

Changes for: pubo-ischium

Changes for: ilial protuberance

Changes for: inferior frontal gyrus

  • Deleted
    • - inferior frontal gyrus definition Component of the frontal lobe, lateral aspect. The rostral boundary is the first appearance of the inferior frontal sulcus whereas the caudal boundary is the precentral gyrus. The medial and lateral boundaries are the lateral bank of the inferior frontal sulcus and the medial bank of the lateral orbital sulcus and/or the circular insular sulcus respectively (Christein Fennema-Notestine). { database cross reference=NIFSTD:birnlex_873 }
  • Added
    • + inferior frontal gyrus definition Component of the frontal lobe, lateral aspect. The rostral boundary is the first appearance of the inferior frontal sulcus whereas the caudal boundary is the precentral gyrus. The medial and lateral boundaries are the lateral bank of the inferior frontal sulcus and the medial bank of the lateral orbital sulcus and/or the circular insular sulcus respectively (Christein Fennema-Notestine). { database cross reference=NIFSTD:birnlex_873 }

Changes for: pulmonary part of lymphatic system

Changes for: skin bony tubercle

Changes for: thymic artery

Changes for: panniculus carnosus muscle

  • Deleted
    • - panniculus carnosus muscle structure notes fine, flat muscles within the hypodermis. Their origin is in the deep fascia of bone and they insert into superficial skin. Function notes: They act to raise hair, quills, feathers, etc. It is also used in ‘twitch’ reflexes to shake off insects, etc.[Palaeos]
  • Added

Changes for: prime adult stage

Changes for: cervical thymic artery

Changes for: axillary sweat gland

Changes for: nucleus of Bischoff

Changes for: lacrimal gland

Changes for: tarsal gland

Changes for: lumbosacral nerve plexus

Changes for: brachial nerve plexus

Changes for: conjunctiva

Changes for: sympathetic ganglion

Changes for: posterior segment of eyeball

Changes for: epithelium of lens

Changes for: capsule of lens

Changes for: autonomic ganglion

Changes for: sensory ganglion

Changes for: anterior segment of eyeball

Changes for: isla magna of Calleja

Changes for: circuit part of central nervous system

Changes for: broad ligament of uterus

Changes for: perianal skin

Changes for: cauda equina

Changes for: gubernacular bulb

Changes for: telencephalon

Changes for: medulla oblongata

Changes for: metencephalon

Changes for: forebrain

Changes for: midbrain

Changes for: procoracoid cartilage

Changes for: procoracoid element

Changes for: procoracoid bone

Changes for: dorsal plus ventral thalamus

  • Deleted
    • - dorsal plus ventral thalamus definition Subcortical brain region consisting of paired gray matter bodies in the dorsal diencephalon and forming part of the lateral wall of the third ventricle of the brain. The thalamus represents the major portion of the diencephalon and is commonly divided into cellular aggregates known as nuclear groups.(MeSH). The dorsal topographic division of the interbrain. The macrodissected adult human thalamus was clearly illustrated by Vesalius in 1543 and the term as defined here was introduced by His in 1893. It includes the traditional epithalamus, dorsal thalamus, and ventral thalamus of Herrick (1910, pp. 494, 498). Also see Kuhlenbeck (1927, Ch. 9) and Jones (1985, p. 87). { database cross reference=NIFSTD:birnlex_954 }
  • Added
    • + dorsal plus ventral thalamus definition Subcortical brain region consisting of paired gray matter bodies in the dorsal diencephalon and forming part of the lateral wall of the third ventricle of the brain. The thalamus represents the major portion of the diencephalon and is commonly divided into cellular aggregates known as nuclear groups.(MeSH). The dorsal topographic division of the interbrain. The macrodissected adult human thalamus was clearly illustrated by Vesalius in 1543 and the term as defined here was introduced by His in 1893. It includes the traditional epithalamus, dorsal thalamus, and ventral thalamus of Herrick (1910, pp. 494, 498). Also see Kuhlenbeck (1927, Ch. 9) and Jones (1985, p. 87). { database cross reference=NIFSTD:birnlex_954 }

Changes for: epithalamus

  • Deleted
    • - epithalamus definition Most dorsal part of the thalamus, comprising the pineal gland and habenular nuclei in most vertebrates. In a few vertebrates, it also includes the parietal eye. (Butler and Hodos, Comparative Vertebrate Neuroanatomy, 2nd ed, 2005, pg. 345-346. { database cross reference=NIFSTD:birnlex_1710 }
  • Added
    • + epithalamus definition Most dorsal part of the thalamus, comprising the pineal gland and habenular nuclei in most vertebrates. In a few vertebrates, it also includes the parietal eye. (Butler and Hodos, Comparative Vertebrate Neuroanatomy, 2nd ed, 2005, pg. 345-346. { database cross reference=NIFSTD:birnlex_1710 }

Changes for: phrenic nerve

Changes for: scent gland

Changes for: choroid plexus

Changes for: internal capsule of telencephalon

Changes for: frontal cortex

  • Deleted
    • - frontal cortex definition Anterior portion of the neocortex, lying anterior to the central sulcus in humans. It is bounded by the parietal cortex posteriorly and the temporal cortex laterally[NIFSTD,modified]. { database cross reference=NIFSTD:nlx_anat_20090601 }
  • Added
    • + frontal cortex definition Anterior portion of the neocortex, lying anterior to the central sulcus in humans. It is bounded by the parietal cortex posteriorly and the temporal cortex laterally[NIFSTD,modified]. { database cross reference=NIFSTD:nlx_anat_20090601 }

Changes for: scala vestibuli

Changes for: endolymphatic duct

Changes for: visceral fascia

Changes for: mesethmoid bone

Changes for: sebum

Changes for: scala tympani

Changes for: lacrimal drainage system

Changes for: posterior semicircular duct

  • Deleted
    • - posterior semicircular duct definition The semicircular canals are three half-circular, interconnected tubes located inside each ear. The three canals are the horizontal semicircular canal (also known as the lateral semicircular canal), superior semicircular canal (also known as the anterior semicircular canal), and the posterior semicircular canal. The canals are aligned approximately orthogonally to one another. The horizontal canal is aligned roughly horizontally in the head. The superior and anterior canals are aligned roughly at a 45 degree angle to a vertical plane drawn from the nose to the back of the skull. Thus, the horizontal canal detects horizontal head movements (such as when doing a pirouette), while the superior and posterior canals detect vertical head movements. Each canal is filled with a fluid called endolymph and contains a motion sensor with little hairs whose ends are embedded in a gelatinous structure called the cupula. As the skull twists in any direction, the endolymph is thrown into different sections of the canals. The cilia detect when the endolymph rushes past, and a signal is then sent to the brain. The semicircular canals are a component of the Labyrinth. Among species of mammals, the size of the semicircular canals is correlated with their type of locomotion. Specifically, species that are agile and have fast, jerky locomotion have larger canals relative to their body size than those that move more cautiously. { database cross reference=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semicircular_canal,Wikipedia:Semicircular_canal }
  • Added
    • + posterior semicircular duct definition The semicircular canals are three half-circular, interconnected tubes located inside each ear. The three canals are the horizontal semicircular canal (also known as the lateral semicircular canal), superior semicircular canal (also known as the anterior semicircular canal), and the posterior semicircular canal. The canals are aligned approximately orthogonally to one another. The horizontal canal is aligned roughly horizontally in the head. The superior and anterior canals are aligned roughly at a 45 degree angle to a vertical plane drawn from the nose to the back of the skull. Thus, the horizontal canal detects horizontal head movements (such as when doing a pirouette), while the superior and posterior canals detect vertical head movements. Each canal is filled with a fluid called endolymph and contains a motion sensor with little hairs whose ends are embedded in a gelatinous structure called the cupula. As the skull twists in any direction, the endolymph is thrown into different sections of the canals. The cilia detect when the endolymph rushes past, and a signal is then sent to the brain. The semicircular canals are a component of the Labyrinth. Among species of mammals, the size of the semicircular canals is correlated with their type of locomotion. Specifically, species that are agile and have fast, jerky locomotion have larger canals relative to their body size than those that move more cautiously. { database cross reference=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semicircular_canal }

Changes for: saccule of membranous labyrinth

Changes for: nail of pedal digit 4

Changes for: utricle of membranous labyrinth

Changes for: nail of pedal digit 5

Changes for: cochlear duct of membranous labyrinth

Changes for: nail of pedal digit 3

Changes for: semicircular canal

Changes for: internal ear

Changes for: cochlea

Changes for: posterior semicircular canal

Changes for: minor salivary gland

Changes for: sublingual gland

Changes for: parotid gland

Changes for: lip

Changes for: saliva

Changes for: sublingual duct

Changes for: duct of salivary gland

Changes for: carpometacarpal joint of digit 1

Changes for: nasal cartilage

Changes for: sebaceous gland

Changes for: sweat gland

Changes for: caudal-sacral region of vertebral column

Changes for: secretion of lacrimal gland

Changes for: paranasal sinus

Changes for: mucosa of larynx

Changes for: nail of manual digit 4

Changes for: nail of manual digit 5

Changes for: nail of pedal digit 1

Changes for: nail of pedal digit 2

Changes for: nail of manual digit 1

Changes for: nail of manual digit 2

Changes for: nail of manual digit 3

Changes for: paraganglion (generic)

Changes for: chemoreceptor

Changes for: disk of temporomandibular joint

Changes for: capsule of temporomandibular joint

Changes for: nerve to stylopharyngeus from glossopharyngeal nerve

Changes for: optic disc

Changes for: cranial nerve

Changes for: fovea centralis

Changes for: spinal nerve

Changes for: deep part of temporalis

Changes for: aqueous humor of eyeball

Changes for: carbon dioxide in respiratory system

Changes for: gas in respiratory system

Changes for: gas excreted from digestive tract

Changes for: excreted gas

Changes for: processus ventralis of thoracic vertebra

Changes for: processus ventrolateralis of thoracic vertebra

Changes for: saccus vasculosus

Changes for: proximal convoluted tubule brush border

Changes for: short microvillus layer

Changes for: striated border microvillus layer

Changes for: layer of microvilli

Changes for: pars plicata of ciliary body

Changes for: pars plana of ciliary body

Changes for: spina externa

Changes for: perforant path

Changes for: layer of smooth muscle tissue

Changes for: epithelium of biliary system

Changes for: articular process

Changes for: superficial epigastric artery

Changes for: sagittal sulcus

Changes for: embryonic lymph heart

Changes for: copulatory lymph heart

Changes for: pineal parenchyma

Changes for: left atrium endocardium

Changes for: cervical sympathetic nerve trunk

  • Deleted
  • Added
    • + cervical sympathetic nerve trunk definition The cervical ganglia are paravertebral ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system. These emerging postganglionic nerves synapse with preganglionic nerves from the thoracic spinal cord. They consist of three paravertebral ganglia: superior cervical ganglion middle cervical ganglion inferior cervical ganglion. The inferior ganglion may be fused with the first thoracic ganglion to form a single structure, the stellate ganglion. Nerves emerging from cervical sympathetic ganglia contribute to the cardiac plexus, among other things. { database cross reference=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cervical_ganglia }

Changes for: external soft tissue zone

Changes for: arcuate artery of foot

Changes for: infant stage

Changes for: anatomical collection

Changes for: anatomical row

Changes for: juvenile stage

Changes for: cloacal epithelium

Changes for: mental nerve

  • Deleted
    • - mental nerve definition Mental nerve is a general somatic afferent (sensory) nerve which provides sensation to the anterior aspects of the chin and lower lip as well as the buccal gingivae of the mandibular anterior teeth and the premolars. It is a branch of the posterior trunk of the inferior alveolar nerve, which is itself a branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (CN V). The nerve emerges at the mental foramen in the mandibula, and divides beneath the Depressor anguli oris muscle into three branches: one descends to the skin of the chin. two ascend to the skin and mucous membrane of the lower lip. These branches communicate freely with the facial nerve. { database cross reference=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mental_nerve,Wikipedia:Mental_nerve }
  • Added
    • + mental nerve definition Mental nerve is a general somatic afferent (sensory) nerve which provides sensation to the anterior aspects of the chin and lower lip as well as the buccal gingivae of the mandibular anterior teeth and the premolars. It is a branch of the posterior trunk of the inferior alveolar nerve, which is itself a branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (CN V). The nerve emerges at the mental foramen in the mandibula, and divides beneath the Depressor anguli oris muscle into three branches: one descends to the skin of the chin. two ascend to the skin and mucous membrane of the lower lip. These branches communicate freely with the facial nerve. { database cross reference=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mental_nerve }

Changes for: podotheca

Changes for: nerve ending

Changes for: lacrimal apparatus

Changes for: distal part of styloid process of temporal bone

Changes for: middle ear

Changes for: pinna

Changes for: vagus nerve

Changes for: infundibular organ

Changes for: arytenoid cartilage

Changes for: lymphoid tissue

Changes for: sclera

Changes for: corneal epithelium

Changes for: ciliary body

Changes for: skeletal muscle of trunk

Changes for: pupil

Changes for: lacrimal canaliculus

Changes for: optic choroid

Changes for: substantia propria of cornea

Changes for: maxillary sinus

Changes for: turbinate bone

Changes for: frontal sinus

Changes for: iris

Changes for: posterior chamber of eyeball

Changes for: uvea

Changes for: anterior chamber of eyeball

Changes for: prepuce

Changes for: mesencephalic nucleus of trigeminal nerve

Changes for: facial modiolus

Changes for: eyelid

Changes for: lower jaw region

Changes for: cranial ganglion

Changes for: spinal nucleus of trigeminal nerve

Changes for: secondary palate

Changes for: upper jaw region

Changes for: jaw skeleton

Changes for: nasal cavity

Changes for: eyelash

Changes for: geniculate ganglion

Changes for: nail

Changes for: neurocranium

Changes for: larynx

Changes for: submandibular gland

Changes for: thyroid cartilage

Changes for: soft palate

Changes for: pharyngeal tonsil

Changes for: tonsillar ring

Changes for: palatine uvula

Changes for: cochlear nucleus

Changes for: oropharynx

Changes for: nasopharynx

Changes for: sphenoidal sinus

Changes for: tongue

Changes for: agranular insular cortex

Changes for: granular insular cortex

Changes for: alveolar ridge of premaxilla

Changes for: cerebellar vein

Changes for: cerebral vein

Changes for: stratum lucidum of uncal CA3

Changes for: air in respiratory system

Changes for: ethmoid bone

Changes for: bodily gas

Changes for: temporal bone

Changes for: sphenoid bone

Changes for: trigeminal ganglion

Changes for: occipital bone

Changes for: central retinal vein

Changes for: malleus bone

Changes for: incus bone

Changes for: lacrimal bone

Changes for: nasal bone

Changes for: jugal bone

Changes for: mandible

Changes for: hyoid bone

Changes for: auditory ossicle bone

Changes for: stapes bone

Changes for: petrous part of temporal bone

Changes for: external ear

Changes for: basioccipital bone

Changes for: orbit of skull

Changes for: squamous part of temporal bone

Changes for: ear

Changes for: stratum lucidum of rostral CA3

Changes for: stratum lucidum of caudal CA3

Changes for: ligament of hip joint

Changes for: ethmoid foramen

Changes for: articulation

Changes for: neuron projection bundle connecting eye with brain

Changes for: crus of penis or clitoris

Changes for: forelimb feather

Changes for: wing feather

Changes for: tail feather

Changes for: breast feather

Changes for: dorsal feather

Changes for: breast feather tract

Changes for: nucleus of the bulbocavernosus

Changes for: lumen of intestine

Changes for: vestibular nuclear complex

Changes for: organ component layer

Changes for: cuneocerebellar tract

  • Deleted
    • - cuneocerebellar tract definition White matter tract that originates from the cuneate and external cuneate nuclei. It relays ascending spinal fibers in the dorsal funiculus and conveys information from forelimbs to the cerebellum. { database cross reference=NIFSTD:birnlex_1238 }
  • Added
    • + cuneocerebellar tract definition White matter tract that originates from the cuneate and external cuneate nuclei. It relays ascending spinal fibers in the dorsal funiculus and conveys information from forelimbs to the cerebellum. { database cross reference=NIFSTD:birnlex_1238 }

Changes for: ventral anterior nucleus of thalamus

Changes for: anterior nucleus of hypothalamus

Changes for: motor nucleus of trigeminal nerve

  • Deleted
    • - motor nucleus of trigeminal nerve definition Nucleus located in the pontine tegmentum containing cells that give rise to motor innervation of the jaw through the trigeminal nerve. It receives both crossed and uncrossed fibers from the cerebral cortex (Heimer, L. The Human Brain and Spinal Cord, 2nd ed., 1996, pg 248). { database cross reference=NIFSTD:birnlex_1222 }
  • Added
    • + motor nucleus of trigeminal nerve definition Nucleus located in the pontine tegmentum containing cells that give rise to motor innervation of the jaw through the trigeminal nerve. It receives both crossed and uncrossed fibers from the cerebral cortex (Heimer, L. The Human Brain and Spinal Cord, 2nd ed., 1996, pg 248). { database cross reference=NIFSTD:birnlex_1222 }

Changes for: superior frontal gyrus

  • Deleted
    • - superior frontal gyrus definition Component of the frontal lobe, lateral aspect. The rostral boundary is the first appearance of the superior frontal sulcus whereas the caudal boundary is the midpoint of the paracentral sulcus on the “inflated” surface. The medial and lateral boundaries are the medial aspect of the frontal lobe and the superior frontal sulcus respectively (Christine Fennema-Notestine). { database cross reference=NIFSTD:birnlex_1303 }
  • Added
    • + superior frontal gyrus definition Component of the frontal lobe, lateral aspect. The rostral boundary is the first appearance of the superior frontal sulcus whereas the caudal boundary is the midpoint of the paracentral sulcus on the “inflated” surface. The medial and lateral boundaries are the medial aspect of the frontal lobe and the superior frontal sulcus respectively (Christine Fennema-Notestine). { database cross reference=NIFSTD:birnlex_1303 }

Changes for: medial tarsal artery

Changes for: upper respiratory tract

Changes for: lower respiratory tract

Changes for: popliteal vein

Changes for: popliteal lymph node

Changes for: inguinal lymph node

Changes for: lower part of vagina

Changes for: extrinsic muscle of tongue

Changes for: facial muscle

Changes for: olfactory nerve

Changes for: digastric muscle group

Changes for: constrictor muscle of pharynx

Changes for: cheek

Changes for: muscle of larynx

Changes for: masseter muscle

Changes for: temporalis muscle

Changes for: stapedius muscle

Changes for: azygos vein

Changes for: auricular muscle

Changes for: thymic vein

Changes for: subclavian vein

Changes for: anterior vena cava

Changes for: left subclavian artery

Changes for: buccinator muscle

Changes for: hindlimb zeugopod

Changes for: forelimb stylopod

Changes for: nerve of thoracic segment

Changes for: mouth mucosa

Changes for: intercostal nerve

Changes for: cervical plexus

Changes for: thoracic nerve

Changes for: vestibular nerve

Changes for: musculocutaneous nerve

Changes for: umbilical cord blood

Changes for: middle cranial fossa

Changes for: lingual nerve

Changes for: anterior cranial fossa

Changes for: spinal nerve root

Changes for: tensor tympani

Changes for: bronchus basement membrane

Changes for: maxillary artery

Changes for: sublingual artery

Changes for: ophthalmic artery

Changes for: right coronary artery

Changes for: anterior cerebral artery

Changes for: middle cerebral artery

Changes for: left coronary artery

Changes for: central retinal artery

Changes for: coronary artery

Changes for: intercostal space

Changes for: posterior cerebral artery

Changes for: basilar artery

Changes for: vein

Changes for: artery

Changes for: echolocation organ

Changes for: temporal artery

Changes for: glossopharyngeal nerve

Changes for: vestibulocochlear nerve

Changes for: future diaphragm

Changes for: trigeminal nerve

Changes for: trochlear nerve

Changes for: facial nerve

Changes for: abducens nerve

Changes for: celiac artery

Changes for: oculomotor nerve

Changes for: trunk paraxial mesoderm

Changes for: head paraxial mesoderm

Changes for: chromaffin system

Changes for: hypoglossal nerve

Changes for: cardiovascular system endothelium

Changes for: aorta endothelium

Changes for: vasculature of retina

Changes for: orbital cavity

Changes for: paraaortic lymph node

Changes for: superficial cervical lymph node

Changes for: vestibulocochlear nerve root

Changes for: marginal zone of embryo

Changes for: perinatal stage

Changes for: chordamesoderm

Changes for: diagonal band of Broca

Changes for: nephron tubule epithelium

Changes for: accessory XI nerve spinal component

  • Deleted
    • - accessory XI nerve spinal component definition The spinal root of accessory nerve (or part) is firm in texture, and its fibers arise from the motor cells in the lateral part of the anterior column of the gray substance of the medulla spinalis as low as the fifth cervical nerve. Passing through the lateral funiculus of the medulla spinalis, they emerge on its surface and unite to form a single trunk, which ascends between the ligamentum denticulatum and the posterior roots of the spinal nerves; enters the skull through the foramen magnum, and is then directed to the jugular foramen, through which it passes, lying in the same sheath of dura mater as the vagus, but separated from it by a fold of the arachnoid. In the jugular foramen, it receives one or two filaments from the cranial part of the nerve, or else joins it for a short distance and then separates from it again. As its exit from the jugular foramen, it runs backward in front of the internal jugular vein in 66.6 per cent. of cases, and behind in it 33.3 per cent. The nerve then descends obliquely behind the Digastricus and Stylohyoideus to the upper part of the Sternocleidomastoideus; it pierces this muscle, and courses obliquely across the posterior triangle of the neck, to end in the deep surface of the Trapezius. As it traverses the Sternocleidomastoideus it gives several filaments to the muscle, and joins with branches from the second cervical nerve. In the posterior triangle it unites with the second and third cervical nerves, while beneath the Trapezius it forms a plexus with the third and fourth cervical nerves, and from this plexus fibers are distributed to the muscle. { database cross reference=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spinal_root_of_accessory_nerve,Wikipedia:Spinal_root_of_accessory_nerve }
  • Added
    • + accessory XI nerve spinal component definition The spinal root of accessory nerve (or part) is firm in texture, and its fibers arise from the motor cells in the lateral part of the anterior column of the gray substance of the medulla spinalis as low as the fifth cervical nerve. Passing through the lateral funiculus of the medulla spinalis, they emerge on its surface and unite to form a single trunk, which ascends between the ligamentum denticulatum and the posterior roots of the spinal nerves; enters the skull through the foramen magnum, and is then directed to the jugular foramen, through which it passes, lying in the same sheath of dura mater as the vagus, but separated from it by a fold of the arachnoid. In the jugular foramen, it receives one or two filaments from the cranial part of the nerve, or else joins it for a short distance and then separates from it again. As its exit from the jugular foramen, it runs backward in front of the internal jugular vein in 66.6 per cent. of cases, and behind in it 33.3 per cent. The nerve then descends obliquely behind the Digastricus and Stylohyoideus to the upper part of the Sternocleidomastoideus; it pierces this muscle, and courses obliquely across the posterior triangle of the neck, to end in the deep surface of the Trapezius. As it traverses the Sternocleidomastoideus it gives several filaments to the muscle, and joins with branches from the second cervical nerve. In the posterior triangle it unites with the second and third cervical nerves, while beneath the Trapezius it forms a plexus with the third and fourth cervical nerves, and from this plexus fibers are distributed to the muscle. { database cross reference=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spinal_root_of_accessory_nerve }

Changes for: feather barbicel

Changes for: nose tip

Changes for: dermatological-muscosal system

Changes for: vinculum of tendon

Changes for: kidney epithelium

Changes for: seminiferous tubule epithelium

Changes for: bile duct epithelium

Changes for: gut mesentery

Changes for: deep parotid lymph node

Changes for: ingested food

Changes for: pedal digitopodium region

Changes for: manual digitopodium region

Changes for: hepatic duct smooth muscle

Changes for: digitopodium region

Changes for: pedal digit 8

Changes for: posterior inferior cerebellar artery

Changes for: centrale

Changes for: pedal digit 7

Changes for: posterior nucleus of hypothalamus

Changes for: corticospinal tract

Changes for: precentral gyrus

  • Deleted
    • - precentral gyrus definition Component of the frontal lobe. The appearance and disappearance of the central sulcus is the rostral and caudal boundaries of the precentral gyrus respectively. The medial boundary is specific frontal gyri (superior, middle and inferior) whereas the lateral boundary is the medial bank of the central sulcus (Christine Fennema-Notestine). { database cross reference=NIFSTD:birnlex_1455 }
  • Added
    • + precentral gyrus definition Component of the frontal lobe. The appearance and disappearance of the central sulcus is the rostral and caudal boundaries of the precentral gyrus respectively. The medial boundary is specific frontal gyri (superior, middle and inferior) whereas the lateral boundary is the medial bank of the central sulcus (Christine Fennema-Notestine). { database cross reference=NIFSTD:birnlex_1455 }

Changes for: respiratory tract epithelium

Changes for: intergluteal cleft

  • Deleted
  • Added
    • + intergluteal cleft definition The gluteal sulcus (also known as the gluteal fold or horizontal gluteal crease) is an area of the body of humans and great apes, described by a horizontal crease formed by the inferior aspect of the buttocks and the posterior upper leg. It is one of the major defining features of the buttocks. Children with developmental dysplasia of the hips are born with uneven gluteal folds and can be diagnosed with physical examination and sonogram. { database cross reference=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gluteal_sulcus }

Changes for: hindlimb feather

Changes for: crural feather

Changes for: temporal pole

  • Deleted
    • - temporal pole definition Anterior component of the temporal lobe (rostral boundary) extends caudally to the entorhinal cortex. The medial and lateral boundaries are the medial aspect of the temporal lobe and the superior or inferior temporal sulci, respectively (Christine Fennema-Notestine). { database cross reference=NIFSTD:birnlex_1055 }
  • Added
    • + temporal pole definition Anterior component of the temporal lobe (rostral boundary) extends caudally to the entorhinal cortex. The medial and lateral boundaries are the medial aspect of the temporal lobe and the superior or inferior temporal sulci, respectively (Christine Fennema-Notestine). { database cross reference=NIFSTD:birnlex_1055 }

Changes for: metacromion

Changes for: olivary pretectal nucleus

  • Deleted
    • - olivary pretectal nucleus definition Small distinct nucleus in the pretectum of mammals involved in the pupillary light reflect. In rats, it is an olive shaped (anterior) nucleus lying ventral to the brachium of the superior colliculus (Paxinos, The rat nervous system, 2nd ed, 1995, pg. 862). Physiologically, it is identified by neurons sensitive to luminance changes. { database cross reference=NIFSTD:birnlex_1037 }
  • Added
    • + olivary pretectal nucleus definition Small distinct nucleus in the pretectum of mammals involved in the pupillary light reflect. In rats, it is an olive shaped (anterior) nucleus lying ventral to the brachium of the superior colliculus (Paxinos, The rat nervous system, 2nd ed, 1995, pg. 862). Physiologically, it is identified by neurons sensitive to luminance changes. { database cross reference=NIFSTD:birnlex_1037 }

Changes for: pars endotympanica

  • Deleted
    • - pars endotympanica definition This is present in the cat and forms the large medial part of the Bulla tympanica. It is not to be regarded as a part of the pars tympanica, which ossifies directly from connective tissue, whereas the Pars endotympanica is preformed in cartilage. The Septum bullae in the cat is formed by the Pars tympanica as well as by the Pars endotympanica(NOMINA ANATOMICA VETERINARIA (2005)). { database cross reference=UBERON:cjm }
  • Added
    • + pars endotympanica definition This is present in the cat and forms the large medial part of the Bulla tympanica. It is not to be regarded as a part of the pars tympanica, which ossifies directly from connective tissue, whereas the Pars endotympanica is preformed in cartilage. The Septum bullae in the cat is formed by the Pars tympanica as well as by the Pars endotympanica(NOMINA ANATOMICA VETERINARIA (2005)). { database cross reference=http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6601-2165 }

Changes for: pupal case

Changes for: maxillary recess

Changes for: neck of bone element

Changes for: interstitial nucleus of Cajal

Changes for: cranial placode

Changes for: upper lateral secondary incisor tooth

Changes for: lateral line system

Changes for: digit

Changes for: gill

Changes for: male membranous urethra

  • Deleted
    • - male membranous urethra definition the shortest, least dilatable, and, with the exception of the external orifice, the narrowest part of the male urethral canal located in the deep perineal pouch and lined by pseudostratified columnar epithelium; it extends downward and forward, with a slight anterior concavity, between the apex of the prostate and the bulb of the urethra, perforating the urogenital diaphragm below and behind the pubic symphysis; the membranous portion of the urethra is completely surrounded by the fibers of the sphincter urethrae membranaceae; on either side near its termination are the bulbourethral glands { database cross reference=MP:0011778,MGI:anna }
  • Added
    • + male membranous urethra definition the shortest, least dilatable, and, with the exception of the external orifice, the narrowest part of the male urethral canal located in the deep perineal pouch and lined by pseudostratified columnar epithelium; it extends downward and forward, with a slight anterior concavity, between the apex of the prostate and the bulb of the urethra, perforating the urogenital diaphragm below and behind the pubic symphysis; the membranous portion of the urethra is completely surrounded by the fibers of the sphincter urethrae membranaceae; on either side near its termination are the bulbourethral glands { database cross reference=MGI:anna , database cross reference=MP:0011778 }

Changes for: anterior cervical lymph node

Changes for: lateral cervical lymph node

Changes for: gland

Changes for: post-anal tail bud

Changes for: palmar branch of median nerve

Changes for: elastic tissue

Changes for: tunica intima

Changes for: tunica media

Changes for: otolithic part of statoconial membrane

Changes for: basicranium

Changes for: otolith organ

Changes for: periosteum

Changes for: epiphyseal plate

Changes for: endochondral bone

Changes for: glabella region of bone

Changes for: corpus luteum

Changes for: trabecula carnea

Changes for: calcaneus

Changes for: navicular bone of pes

Changes for: face

Changes for: cuboid bone

Changes for: skeleton of pes

Changes for: skeleton of manus

Changes for: distal phalanx of digit 2

Changes for: distal phalanx of digit 3

Changes for: distal phalanx of digit 4

Changes for: distal phalanx of digit 5

Changes for: middle phalanx of digit 2

Changes for: middle phalanx of digit 3

Changes for: tarsal bone

Changes for: distal phalanx of digit 1

Changes for: skeletal system

Changes for: subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue

Changes for: visceral abdominal adipose tissue

Changes for: compact bone tissue

Changes for: pretectal nucleus

Changes for: epiphysis

Changes for: pectoral girdle region

Changes for: intermedium

Changes for: pisiform

Changes for: radiale

Changes for: elbow joint

Changes for: radial nerve

Changes for: vasa vasorum

Changes for: brachiocephalic vein

Changes for: ulnar nerve

Changes for: pectoral muscle

Changes for: muscle of pelvic girdle

Changes for: recurrent laryngeal nerve

Changes for: splanchnic nerve

Changes for: neural tissue

Changes for: splenic vein

Changes for: cavernous sinus

Changes for: articular capsule

Changes for: knee joint

Changes for: temporomandibular joint

Changes for: ankle joint

Changes for: hip joint

Changes for: pes joint

Changes for: laryngeal vocal fold

Changes for: carotid sinus

Changes for: sinus of Valsalva

Changes for: inguinal canal

Changes for: calcaneal tendon

Changes for: intrahepatic bile duct

Changes for: extrahepatic bile duct

Changes for: circle of Willis

Changes for: glenohumeral joint

Changes for: deltoid

Changes for: skin of prepuce of penis

Changes for: lymphatic vessel

Changes for: middle phalanx of digit 5

Changes for: middle phalanx of digit 4

Changes for: sesamoid bone

Changes for: prepyriform area

Changes for: paracentral sulcus

Changes for: shoulder

Changes for: hip

Changes for: knee

Changes for: manual digit 1

Changes for: arm

Changes for: elbow

Changes for: sternoclavicular joint

Changes for: manual digit 4

Changes for: manual digit 5

Changes for: manual digit 3

Changes for: manual digit 2

Changes for: manual digit 1 phalanx

Changes for: pedal digit 5

Changes for: manual digit 2 phalanx

Changes for: manual digit 3 phalanx

Changes for: manual digit 4 phalanx

Changes for: manual digit 5 phalanx

Changes for: lateral malleolus of fibula

Changes for: pedal digit 2

Changes for: pedal digit 1

Changes for: pedal digit 4

Changes for: pedal digit 3

Changes for: hemisphere of embryo

Changes for: perianal sebaceous gland

Changes for: trachea cartilage

Changes for: abdominal ganglion

Changes for: chromaffin paraganglion

Changes for: endometrium glandular epithelium

Changes for: blood vessel elastic tissue

Changes for: fascia lata

Changes for: synovial bursa

Changes for: brachiocephalic artery

Changes for: sublaminar layers S1 or S2 or S3 or S4

Changes for: sublaminar layers S3 or S4 or S5

Changes for: border of sublaminar layers S3 and S4

Changes for: border of sublaminar layers S1 and S2

Changes for: skin mucous gland

Changes for: sublaminar layers S1 or S2 or S3

Changes for: sublaminar layers S1 or S2 or S5

Changes for: sublaminar layers S1 or S3 or S4

Changes for: thymus trabecula

Changes for: sublaminar layers S2 or S3 or S4

Changes for: prostate gland secretion

Changes for: sublaminar layers S3 or S4

Changes for: blood vessel layer

Changes for: mouth floor

Changes for: vertebral artery

Changes for: right subclavian artery

Changes for: entire pharyngeal arch endoderm

Changes for: smegma

Changes for: anterior cruciate ligament of knee joint

Changes for: internal carotid artery

Changes for: subclavian artery

Changes for: ligamentum flavum

Changes for: common carotid artery plus branches

Changes for: cuspid

Changes for: patellar ligament

Changes for: interosseous muscle of manus

Changes for: metacarpal bone of digit 5

Changes for: metacarpal bone of digit 4

Changes for: metacarpal bone of digit 3

Changes for: arch of aorta

  • Deleted
    • - arch of aorta definition the convex portion of the aorta between the ascending and descending parts of the aorta; branches from it include the brachiocephalic trunk, the left common carotid artery, and the left subclavian artery; the brachiocephalic trunk further splits to form the right subclavian artery and the right common carotid artery { database cross reference=MP:0004113,ISBN:0-683-40008-8 }
  • Added
    • + arch of aorta definition the convex portion of the aorta between the ascending and descending parts of the aorta; branches from it include the brachiocephalic trunk, the left common carotid artery, and the left subclavian artery; the brachiocephalic trunk further splits to form the right subclavian artery and the right common carotid artery { database cross reference=ISBN:0-683-40008-8 , database cross reference=MP:0004113 }

Changes for: metacarpal bone of digit 2

Changes for: tunicate siphon

Changes for: endocardium of left ventricle

Changes for: endocardium of right ventricle

Changes for: metacarpal bone of digit 1

Changes for: pedal digit 3 phalanx

Changes for: pedal digit 1 phalanx

Changes for: pedal digit 2 phalanx

Changes for: thoracic aorta

Changes for: abdominal aorta

Changes for: metatarsal bone of digit 4

Changes for: kidney pelvis urothelium

Changes for: metatarsal bone of digit 5

Changes for: respiratory system mucosa

Changes for: metatarsal bone of digit 1

Changes for: metatarsal bone of digit 2

Changes for: metatarsal bone of digit 3

Changes for: skeletal tissue

Changes for: dermal skeletal element

Changes for: scapulocoracoid

Changes for: regional part of brain

Changes for: salt gland

Changes for: vertebral centrum element

Changes for: diaphysis

Changes for: foramen magnum

Changes for: tooth socket

Changes for: sella turcica

Changes for: rotator cuff

Changes for: instar larval stage

Changes for: palatal muscle

Changes for: cranial suture

Changes for: masticatory muscle

Changes for: posterior cruciate ligament of knee joint

Changes for: pubic symphysis

Changes for: articular/anguloarticular

Changes for: subtalar joint

Changes for: metatarsophalangeal joint

Changes for: atlanto-axial joint

Changes for: acromioclavicular joint

Changes for: epidural space

Changes for: fused sacrum

Changes for: emboliform nucleus

  • Deleted
    • - emboliform nucleus definition the small wedge shaped nucleus interposed between the dentate and fastigial nuclei; it receives axons from Purkinje cells of the intermediate area of the cerebral hemispheres and most of its efferent connections travel via the superior cerebellar peduncle { database cross reference=MP:0009981,ISBN:0-683-40008-8 }
  • Added

Changes for: neuropil

Changes for: incisor region of dentition

Changes for: jugular vein

Changes for: cardiac muscle tissue of ventricle

Changes for: septum pellucidum

Changes for: cerebellar vermis

  • Deleted
    • - cerebellar vermis definition A subregion of the cerebellar cortex, consisting of the most medial zone of the cerebellar cortex, stradding the midline. May be continuous with the lateral cerebellar hemispheres in some areas of the cerebellum, e.g., dorsally, or separated by deeper fissures in others (e.g., ventrally) { database cross reference=NIFSTD:birnlex_1106 }
  • Added
    • + cerebellar vermis definition A subregion of the cerebellar cortex, consisting of the most medial zone of the cerebellar cortex, stradding the midline. May be continuous with the lateral cerebellar hemispheres in some areas of the cerebellum, e.g., dorsally, or separated by deeper fissures in others (e.g., ventrally) { database cross reference=NIFSTD:birnlex_1106 }

Changes for: piriform cortex

Changes for: cochlear nerve

Changes for: amphibian larval stage

Changes for: nematode larval stage

Changes for: inferior phrenic artery

  • Deleted
    • - inferior phrenic artery definition The inferior phrenic arteries are two small vessels, which supply the diaphragm but present much variety in their origin. They may arise separately from the front of the aorta, immediately above the celiac artery, or by a common trunk, which may spring either from the aorta or from the celiac artery. Sometimes one is derived from the aorta, and the other from one of the renal arteries; they rarely arise as separate vessels from the aorta. They diverge from one another across the crura of the diaphragm, and then run obliquely upward and lateralward upon its under surface. The left phrenic passes behind the esophagus, and runs forward on the left side of the esophageal hiatus. The right phrenic passes behind the inferior vena cava, and along the right side of the foramen which transmits that vein. Near the back part of the central tendon each vessel divides into a medial and a lateral branch. The medial branch curves forward, and anastomoses with its fellow of the opposite side, and with the musculophrenic and pericardiacophrenic arteries. The lateral branch passes toward the side of the thorax, and anastomoses with the lower intercostal arteries, and with the musculophrenic. The lateral branch of the right phrenic gives off a few vessels to the inferior vena cava; and the left one, some branches to the esophagus. Each vessel gives off superior suprarenal branches to the suprarenal gland of its own side. The spleen and the liver also receive a few twigs from the left and right vessels respectively. { database cross reference=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inferior_phrenic_arteries,Wikipedia:Inferior_phrenic_arteries }
  • Added
    • + inferior phrenic artery definition The inferior phrenic arteries are two small vessels, which supply the diaphragm but present much variety in their origin. They may arise separately from the front of the aorta, immediately above the celiac artery, or by a common trunk, which may spring either from the aorta or from the celiac artery. Sometimes one is derived from the aorta, and the other from one of the renal arteries; they rarely arise as separate vessels from the aorta. They diverge from one another across the crura of the diaphragm, and then run obliquely upward and lateralward upon its under surface. The left phrenic passes behind the esophagus, and runs forward on the left side of the esophageal hiatus. The right phrenic passes behind the inferior vena cava, and along the right side of the foramen which transmits that vein. Near the back part of the central tendon each vessel divides into a medial and a lateral branch. The medial branch curves forward, and anastomoses with its fellow of the opposite side, and with the musculophrenic and pericardiacophrenic arteries. The lateral branch passes toward the side of the thorax, and anastomoses with the lower intercostal arteries, and with the musculophrenic. The lateral branch of the right phrenic gives off a few vessels to the inferior vena cava; and the left one, some branches to the esophagus. Each vessel gives off superior suprarenal branches to the suprarenal gland of its own side. The spleen and the liver also receive a few twigs from the left and right vessels respectively. { database cross reference=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inferior_phrenic_arteries }

Changes for: internal urethral orifice

Changes for: cardiac muscle tissue of left auricle

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Changes for: cortex of cerebral lobe

Changes for: parietal cortex

  • Deleted
    • - parietal cortex definition Gray matter of the parietal region of the neocortex, located in the parietal lobe of gyrencephalic animals. It is continuous anteriorly with the frontal cortex, posteriorly with the occipital cortex and medially with the insular cortex and with the temporal cortex on the posterior/inferior border. { database cross reference=NIFSTD:nlx_79282 }
  • Added
    • + parietal cortex definition Gray matter of the parietal region of the neocortex, located in the parietal lobe of gyrencephalic animals. It is continuous anteriorly with the frontal cortex, posteriorly with the occipital cortex and medially with the insular cortex and with the temporal cortex on the posterior/inferior border. { database cross reference=NIFSTD:nlx_79282 }

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Changes for: spongiose part of urethra

  • Deleted
    • - spongiose part of urethra definition the longest part of the male urethra contained in the corpus spongiosum and extending from the end of the membranous portion to the external urethral orifice; commencing below the inferior fascia of the urogenital diaphragm it passes forward and upward to the front of the symphysis pubis; and then, in the flaccid condition of the penis, it bends downward and forward; while narrow and of uniform size in the body of the penis, it is dilated behind, within the bulb, and again anteriorly within the glans penis, where it forms the fossa navicularis urethrae; the spongy urethra is lined by pseudostratified columnar epithelium proximally, and by stratified squamous epithelium distally { database cross reference=MP:0011779,MGI:anna }
  • Added
    • + spongiose part of urethra definition the longest part of the male urethra contained in the corpus spongiosum and extending from the end of the membranous portion to the external urethral orifice; commencing below the inferior fascia of the urogenital diaphragm it passes forward and upward to the front of the symphysis pubis; and then, in the flaccid condition of the penis, it bends downward and forward; while narrow and of uniform size in the body of the penis, it is dilated behind, within the bulb, and again anteriorly within the glans penis, where it forms the fossa navicularis urethrae; the spongy urethra is lined by pseudostratified columnar epithelium proximally, and by stratified squamous epithelium distally { database cross reference=MGI:anna , database cross reference=MP:0011779 }

Changes for: tibia endochondral element

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Changes for: male urethra

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Changes for: prostatic urethra

  • Deleted
    • - prostatic urethra definition the widest and most dilatable part of the male urethra canal which runs almost vertically through the prostate from its base to its apex, lying nearer its anterior than its posterior surface; this portion of the urethral canal is spindle-shaped, being wider in the middle than at either extremity, and narrowest below, where it joins the membranous portion; it is lined by transitional epithelium and contains in its posterior wall, or floor, the orifices of the prostatic utricle, ejaculatory ducts, and prostatic ducts, collectively known as the seminal colliculus (aka verumontanum) { database cross reference=MP:0011777,MGI:anna }
  • Added
    • + prostatic urethra definition the widest and most dilatable part of the male urethra canal which runs almost vertically through the prostate from its base to its apex, lying nearer its anterior than its posterior surface; this portion of the urethral canal is spindle-shaped, being wider in the middle than at either extremity, and narrowest below, where it joins the membranous portion; it is lined by transitional epithelium and contains in its posterior wall, or floor, the orifices of the prostatic utricle, ejaculatory ducts, and prostatic ducts, collectively known as the seminal colliculus (aka verumontanum) { database cross reference=MGI:anna , database cross reference=MP:0011777 }

Changes for: female urethra

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