2015-04-12 release

This release incoporates multiple improved textual definitions, with wikipedia definitions being replaced either with more ontological resources such as the mammalian phenotype ontology, or rewritten de novo. The alignment with the embryonic mouse anatomy ontology has been updated and improved. Multiple other improvements and new terms, in particular in neuroanatomical and urogenital parts of the ontology.
2015-04-12 release image

Ontology Diff Report

  • Definitions
    • multiple improvements to textual defs
    • Replaced various wikipedia defs with MP
  • Ontology alignment
    • removed EMAPA xref pointing to post-natal organism. Was already associated with time-generic organism. Fixes 667
    • Added many missing EMAPA xrefs. Issue 663. Also https://github.com/obophenotype/mouse-anatomy-ontology/issues/10, https://github.com/obophenotype/mouse-anatomy-ontology/issues/9
    • removing axiom linking EMAPA facial muscle to uberon/feed concept. See https://github.com/obophenotype/mouse-anatomy-ontology/issues/12
    • fixed zfa xref. Fixes 668
    • Additional xrefs to FEED, brought in FEED definitions
  • Neuro
    • Many multi-tissue-structures in the brain reclassified as ‘regional part of brain’
    • NT: anterior cortical amygdaloid nucleus
    • NT: amygdalopiriform transition area. Issue 663. Also issue https://github.com/obophenotype/mouse-anatomy-ontology/issues/7
    • merged vagal and vagus nerve trunk. 664
    • NT: saccus vasculosus. Issue 662
    • Made labels more friendly for spinal cord divisions. Fixes 669
    • obsoletion of various regional part of X terms
  • Development
    • ensured transformation_of holds between all connective tissues and mesenchymes. Note that we still have the unsatisfactory situation of MA xreffing the earlier structure, TBD. 664
    • Obsoleted skeleton of embryo.
    • Made post-anal tail follow transformation-of edges. We retain the embryonic tail as its a useful grouping for humans and other chordates that lack the adult post-anal tail. 664
    • disambiguated organ of zuckerkandl and paraganglion. 664. NT: aortic body
  • Urogenital
    • merged {inner,outer} medullary collecting duct with {inner,outer} renal medulla collecting duct. 664
    • merged cortical and renal cortex collecting ducts. 664
    • upper level classification fixes; tubes
    • NTs for perineal raphe structures. Added definition and axioms
    • NT: scrotal sac
  • Other
    • tail muscles
    • lens capsule is now acellular
    • NTR: lateral nasal gland. Fixes 649
    • ducts, from MP
    • Lymph system improvements, based on doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00201.2013
    • adding pheno slim and removing old subsets
    • Adding axioms for arteries, veins, nerves and muscles.

Original Ontology

  • IRI: http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/uberon.owl
  • VersionIRI: http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/uberon/releases/2015-03-15/uberon.owl

New Ontology

  • IRI: http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/uberon.owl
  • VersionIRI: http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/uberon/releases/2015-04-12/uberon.owl

Report for classes

Class objects lost from source: 12

Class objects new in target: 116

New Class : inferior bulb of internal jugular vein

New Class : superior bulb of internal jugular vein

New Class : nerve to quadratus femoris

New Class : ischial tuberosity

New Class : jugular bulb

New Class : amygdalopiriform transition area

New Class : sacral nerve plexus

New Class : lumbar nerve plexus

New Class : tendon of obturator internus

New Class : jugular body

New Class : aortic body

New Class : paraganglion (generic)

New Class : nonchromaffin paraganglion

New Class : anterior cortical amygdaloid nucleus

New Class : jaw mesenchyme

New Class : hindbrain cortical intermediate zone

New Class : basal ventral medial nucleus of thalamus

New Class : posterolateral cortical amygdaloid nucleus

New Class : outer renal medulla loop of henle

New Class : renal medulla loop of henle

New Class : carbon dioxide in respiratory system

New Class : gas in respiratory system

New Class : gas excreted from digestive tract

New Class : excreted gas

New Class : zone of organ

New Class : saccus vasculosus

New Class : vibrissal follicle-sinus complex

New Class : blood sinus of vibrissa

New Class : lymphatic valve

New Class : venous sinus cavity

New Class : middle thyroid vein

New Class : superficial epigastric artery

New Class : lateral fornix of vagina

New Class : epithelial layer of duct

New Class : sagittal sulcus

New Class : embryonic lymph heart

New Class : copulatory lymph heart

New Class : left lymph heart

New Class : embryonic lymph sac

New Class : intrapleuroperitoneal lymph sac

New Class : right lymph heart

New Class : retroperitoneal embryonic lymph sac

New Class : lymph sac

New Class : subcutaneous lymph sac

New Class : parotid gland interlobular duct

New Class : deep intraparotid lymph node

New Class : parotid gland myoepithelium

New Class : lateral nasal gland

New Class : duct of apocrine sweat gland

New Class : thymus subunit

New Class : duct of eccrine sweat gland

New Class : fracture plane

New Class : vertebral fracture plane

New Class : plane of autotomy bisecting joint

New Class : intraparotid lymph node

New Class : caudofemoralis longus

New Class : caudofemoralis brevis

New Class : transverse process-bearing vertebra

New Class : non-transverse process-bearing vertebra

New Class : anatomical plane

New Class : plane of autotomy

New Class : hemipenis transversus muscle

New Class : transversus perinei muscle

New Class : spinalis caudalis muscle

New Class : extensor caudae muscle

New Class : plane of autotomy bisecting intervertebral joint

New Class : extrinsic post-anal tail muscle

New Class : fascia of tail

New Class : iliocaudalis muscle

New Class : extensor caudae medialis muscle

New Class : extensor caudae lateralis muscle

New Class : left vagus X nerve trunk

New Class : amygdalohippocampal transition area

New Class : amygdalohippocampal area, parvocellular division

New Class : amygdalohippocampal area, magnocellular division

New Class : trunk of segmental spinal nerve

New Class : right vagus X nerve trunk

New Class : lateral spinal nucleus

New Class : rectal artery

New Class : carpal tunnel

New Class : jaw epithelium

New Class : naris epithelium

New Class : eyelid epithelium

New Class : abdominal oblique muscle

New Class : superior rectal artery

New Class : middle temporal artery

New Class : deep temporal artery

New Class : olfactory cortex layer 3

New Class : temporal branch of lateral pretrosal artery

New Class : parotid gland intercalated duct

New Class : parotid gland intralobular duct

New Class : parotid gland excretory duct

New Class : parotid gland striated duct

New Class : excretory duct of salivary gland

New Class : interlobular duct of salivary gland

New Class : excretory duct

New Class : posteromedial cortical amygdaloid nucleus

New Class : preputial swelling of male

New Class : preputial swelling of female

New Class : preputial swelling

New Class : nasal concha primordium

New Class : central gray substance

New Class : temporal cortex association area

New Class : functional part of brain

New Class : association cortex

New Class : tactile mechanoreceptor

New Class : nociceptor

New Class : inferior olive, beta nucleus

New Class : thermoreceptor

New Class : raphe of penis

New Class : sac of scrotum

New Class : transverse process of caudal vertebra

New Class : perineal body smooth muscle muscle tissue

New Class : retractor penis magnus muscle

New Class : temporalis fascia

New Class : raphe of perineum

Changed Class objects: 3336

Changes for: distal epiphysis of metacarpal bone

Changes for: metaphysis of radius

Changes for: metaphysis of tibia

Changes for: arterial blood

Changes for: ulnar metaphysis

Changes for: metaphysis of humerus

Changes for: zona intermedia of adrenal gland

Changes for: obsolete regional part of lumbar spinal cord white matter

Changes for: paravermic lobule III

Changes for: paravermic lobule II

Changes for: paravermic lobule VII

Changes for: paravermic lobule VIII

Changes for: paravermic lobule IX

Changes for: paravermic lobule IV

Changes for: paravermic lobule VI

Changes for: paravermic lobule V

Changes for: inferior parietal sulcus

Changes for: transverse parietal sulcus

Changes for: superior parietal sulcus

Changes for: angular sulcus

Changes for: thalamic fiber tract

Changes for: obsolete regional part of cervical spinal cord white matter

Changes for: inferior sagittal sulcus

Changes for: superior sagittal sulcus

Changes for: zygantrum

Changes for: lumen of esophagus

Changes for: supra-orbital ridge

Changes for: styloid process of ulna

Changes for: mesonephric duct lumen

Changes for: pericranium

Changes for: anatomical conduit space

Changes for: right dorsal thalamus

Changes for: left dorsal thalamus

Changes for: peripheral region of retina

Changes for: buttock

Changes for: strand of axillary hair

Changes for: strand of pubic hair

Changes for: obsolete regional part of a lobe of the cerebellum

Changes for: velar skeleton

Changes for: posterior superior frontal sulcus

Changes for: anterior parahippocampal gyrus

Changes for: medial orbital frontal cortex

Changes for: future lower lip

Changes for: future upper lip

Changes for: zeugopodial skeleton

Changes for: paired limb/fin skeleton

Changes for: stylopodial skeleton

Changes for: obsolete regional part of sacral spinal cord white matter

Changes for: supracoracoideus muscle of wing

Changes for: gingiva of upper jaw

Changes for: gingiva of lower jaw

Changes for: paired fin radial skeleton

Changes for: pleural plate of carapace

Changes for: hypoplastron

Changes for: xiphiplastron

Changes for: trunk vertebra

Changes for: orbital part of frontal bone

Changes for: epicanthal fold

Changes for: digestive system element

Changes for: obsolete regional part of lumbar spinal cord

Changes for: skin of sole of pes

Changes for: skin of palm of manus

Changes for: right nipple

Changes for: diaphysis of metatarsal bone

Changes for: left nipple

Changes for: jaw muscle

Changes for: puboischiofemoralis externus muscle

Changes for: puboischiofemoralis internus muscle

Changes for: epiplastron

Changes for: dorsal head of rib

Changes for: diapophysis of neural arch

Changes for: colic flexure

Changes for: tear film

  • Added
    • + tear film external definition the thin acellular fluid layer that adheres to the most superficial layer of the corneal epithelium and lubricates and protects the ocular surface; the film is generally composed of three layers: (i) an inner mucous layer, secreted largely by the conjunctival goblet cells with contributions from the lacrimal glands, which coats the cornea, provides a hydrophobic layer, and allows for even distribution of the tear film; (ii) a middle aqueous layer, secreted by the lacrimal glands, which keeps the corneal surface moist, and provides a mechanism for oxygenation and nutrient exchange with the avascular anterior corneal tissue; and (iii) an outer lipid layer, secreted principally by the Meibomian (tarsal) glands although lipid tear elements also are contributed by the Harderian glands; tear film lipids form a monolayer on the tear surface, and function by enhancing the surface tension which supports the integrity of the tear film against collapse due to gravity and also slows down the loss of the tear film by evaporation; in addition , the lipid layer provides a glassy, smooth interface between the air and the transparent cornea { source=MGI:anna }
    • + tear film has exact synonym precorneal film { database cross reference=MGI:anna }

Changes for: integumental surface

Changes for: secondary visual cortex

Changes for: lumbar spinal cord gray matter

Changes for: obsolete regional part of spinal cord gray commissure

Changes for: obsolete regional part of amygdala

Changes for: obsolete regional part of thoracic spinal cord gray matter

Changes for: obsolete regional part of spinal cord dorsal horn

Changes for: entorhinal cortex layer 4

Changes for: entorhinal cortex layer 3

Changes for: molecular layer of dorsal cochlear nucleus

Changes for: entorhinal cortex layer 5

Changes for: entorhinal cortex layer 6

Changes for: pineal gland stalk

Changes for: jugular lymph sac

Changes for: olfactory cortex layer 2

Changes for: olfactory cortex layer 1

Changes for: dentate gyrus granule cell layer outer blade

Changes for: dentate gyrus granule cell layer inner blade

Changes for: dentate gyrus molecular layer inner

Changes for: dentate gyrus molecular layer middle

Changes for: aortic valve leaflet

Changes for: pulmonary valve leaflets

Changes for: entorhinal cortex layer 1

Changes for: entorhinal cortex layer 2

Changes for: genital swelling

Changes for: obsolete regional part of macula

Changes for: feather follicle placode

Changes for: hemispheric parts of the cerebellar cortex

Changes for: obsolete regional part of cerebellar white matter

Changes for: anterior superior frontal sulcus

Changes for: obsolete part of neuraxis

Changes for: obsolete regional part of thoracic spinal cord dorsal horn

Changes for: superficial fascia

Changes for: atrioventricular region

Changes for: loose connective tissue

Changes for: duct of lesser vestibular gland

Changes for: acinus of parotid gland

Changes for: internal acoustic meatus

Changes for: aorta collagen fibril

Changes for: pulmonary collagen fibril

Changes for: tendon collagen fibril

Changes for: bone collagen fibril

Changes for: corneal stroma collagen fibril

Changes for: midcarpal joint

Changes for: anterior uvea

Changes for: endoneurial fluid

Changes for: palatoquadrate arch

Changes for: vertebra pre-cartilage condensation

Changes for: vertebra cartilage element

Changes for: left pelvic girdle region

Changes for: right pelvic girdle region

Changes for: angular bone

Changes for: obsolete regional part of sacral spinal cord gray matter

Changes for: inferior longitudinal fasciculus

Changes for: angle of oral opening

Changes for: areolar sweat gland

Changes for: visual association cortex

Changes for: bulbourethral gland epithelium

Changes for: lumbar spinal cord white matter

Changes for: muscle of Aristotle’s lantern

Changes for: anterior intervertebral notch

Changes for: distal mesopodial pre-cartilage condensation

Changes for: obsolete regional part of tongue

Changes for: mammary gland

Changes for: colostrum

Changes for: endothelium of capillary

Changes for: lobule of mammary gland

Changes for: milk

Changes for: endothelium of venule

Changes for: endothelium of vein

Changes for: endothelium of arteriole

Changes for: endothelium of artery

Changes for: Krause’s gland

Changes for: ventral thalamus

Changes for: epithelium of trachea

Changes for: epithelium of small intestine

Changes for: habenula

Changes for: pineal body

Changes for: subthalamic nucleus

Changes for: optic tract

Changes for: habenular commissure

  • Deleted
    • - habenular commissure definition The habenular commissure, is a brain commissure (a band of nerve fibers) situated in front of the pineal gland that connects the habenular nucleus on one side of the diencephalon with that on the other side. The habernular commissure is part of the trigonum habenulæ (a small depressed triangular area situated in front of the superior colliculus and on the lateral aspect of the posterior part of the tænia thalami). The trigonum habenulæ also contains groups of nerve cells termed the ganglion habenulæ. Fibers enter the trigonum habenulæ from the stalk of the pineal gland, and the habenular commissure. Most of the trigonum habenulæ’s fibers are, however, directed downward and form a bundle, the fasciculus retroflexus of Meynert, which passes medial to the red nucleus, and, after decussating with the corresponding fasciculus of the opposite side, ends in the interpeduncular ganglion. Nerve cell fibers enter the trigonum habenulæ from the stalk of the pineal body, and the habernular commissure. [WP,unvetted]. { database cross reference=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Habenular_commissure }
  • Added

Changes for: paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus

Changes for: central medial nucleus

Changes for: paracentral nucleus

Changes for: ventral lateral nucleus of thalamus

Changes for: lateral geniculate body

Changes for: paraventricular nucleus of thalamus

Changes for: parafascicular nucleus

Changes for: medial geniculate body

Changes for: supraoptic nucleus

Changes for: upper urinary tract

Changes for: superficial part of masseter muscle

Changes for: epithelium of respiratory bronchiole

Changes for: Ammon’s horn

Changes for: submucosa of bronchus

Changes for: cartilage of bronchus

Changes for: white pulp of spleen

Changes for: neocortex

Changes for: epithelium of nasopharynx

Changes for: facial skeleton

Changes for: gingival epithelium

Changes for: pretectal region

Changes for: midbrain tegmentum

Changes for: red nucleus

Changes for: inferior colliculus

Changes for: superior colliculus

Changes for: supraoccipital cartilage element

Changes for: supraoccipital pre-cartilage condensation

Changes for: venule

Changes for: parenchyma of pancreas

Changes for: serosa of esophagus

Changes for: lamina propria of esophagus

Changes for: serum

Changes for: epithelium of esophagus

Changes for: bile

Changes for: gastric juice

Changes for: blood plasma

Changes for: semen

Changes for: substantia nigra pars reticulata

Changes for: substantia nigra pars compacta

Changes for: bronchial-associated lymphoid tissue

Changes for: mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue

Changes for: gut-associated lymphoid tissue

Changes for: periarterial lymphatic sheath

Changes for: elastic cartilage tissue

Changes for: olfactory epithelium

Changes for: iliopsoas

Changes for: cervical ganglion

Changes for: middle cervical ganglion

Changes for: reticular layer of dermis

Changes for: papillary layer of dermis

Changes for: fibrocartilage

Changes for: hyaline cartilage tissue

Changes for: placenta

Changes for: feces

Changes for: corneal endothelium

Changes for: superior cervical ganglion

Changes for: humeroradial joint

Changes for: humeroulnar joint

Changes for: tarsometatarsal joint

Changes for: arteriole

Changes for: crypt of Lieberkuhn of large intestine

Changes for: crypt of Lieberkuhn

Changes for: capillary

Changes for: blood vessel

Changes for: intercarpal joint

Changes for: intermetacarpal joint

Changes for: post-cranial axial skeletal system

Changes for: ventral zone of medial entorhinal cortex

Changes for: atlantal spinal nerve foramen

Changes for: jejunal artery

Changes for: organ system subdivision

Changes for: epidermal egg tooth

Changes for: laryngeal prominence

Changes for: amygdalohippocampal area

Changes for: obsolete regional part of lumbar spinal cord dorsal horn

Changes for: superficial feature part of occipital lobe

Changes for: pulmonary part of lymphatic system

Changes for: mammillothalamic tract of hypothalamus

Changes for: renin-angiotensin system

Changes for: intercotylar space

Changes for: palatine bone horizontal plate

Changes for: thymic artery

Changes for: superficial cervical thymus

Changes for: cervical thymic artery

Changes for: gland of Zeis

Changes for: palpebral fissure

Changes for: lacrimal gland

Changes for: tarsal gland

Changes for: lumbosacral nerve plexus

Changes for: autonomic nerve plexus

Changes for: conjunctiva

Changes for: palpebral conjunctiva

Changes for: commissural nucleus of the solitary tract

Changes for: primary somatosensory cortex lamina VI

Changes for: obsolete regional part of retina

Changes for: sympathetic ganglion

Changes for: paravertebral ganglion

Changes for: parasympathetic ganglion

Changes for: enteric ganglion

Changes for: posterior segment of eyeball

Changes for: epithelium of lens

Changes for: capsule of lens

Changes for: autonomic ganglion

Changes for: sensory ganglion

Changes for: anterior segment of eyeball

Changes for: mesangial matrix

Changes for: ovarian bursa

Changes for: holocrine gland

Changes for: vagina orifice

Changes for: ascending cervical artery

Changes for: transverse cervical artery

Changes for: diencephalon

Changes for: telencephalon

Changes for: medulla oblongata

Changes for: metencephalon

Changes for: forebrain

Changes for: rhombomere

Changes for: midbrain

Changes for: dorsal plus ventral thalamus

Changes for: hypothalamus

Changes for: epithalamus

Changes for: dentate gyrus of hippocampal formation

Changes for: phrenic nerve

Changes for: olfactory tubercle

Changes for: nucleus accumbens

Changes for: island of Calleja

Changes for: trunk of phrenic nerve

Changes for: choroid plexus

Changes for: internal capsule of telencephalon

Changes for: frontal cortex

Changes for: parietal lobe

Changes for: temporal lobe

Changes for: putamen

Changes for: caudate nucleus

Changes for: mastoid process of temporal bone

Changes for: globus pallidus

Changes for: amygdala

Changes for: nucleus of diagonal band

Changes for: scala vestibuli

Changes for: vestibular labyrinth

Changes for: endolymphatic duct

Changes for: synovial membrane of synovial tendon sheath

Changes for: cartilage of external ear

Changes for: scala tympani

Changes for: cartilaginous external acoustic tube

Changes for: skin of chest

Changes for: cerebral hemisphere

Changes for: lacrimal drainage system

Changes for: cortex

Changes for: endolymph

Changes for: obsolete regional part of thoracic spinal cord

Changes for: obsolete regional part of cochlear canal

Changes for: posterior semicircular duct

Changes for: anterior semicircular duct

Changes for: lateral semicircular duct

Changes for: saccule of membranous labyrinth

Changes for: utricle of membranous labyrinth

Changes for: nail of pedal digit 5

Changes for: cochlear duct of membranous labyrinth

Changes for: epoophoron

Changes for: semicircular canal

Changes for: anterior semicircular canal

Changes for: membranous labyrinth

Changes for: auricular cartilage

Changes for: lobule of pinna

Changes for: internal ear

Changes for: perilymph

Changes for: cochlea

Changes for: lateral semicircular canal

Changes for: posterior semicircular canal

Changes for: minor salivary gland

Changes for: sublingual gland

Changes for: parotid gland

Changes for: upper lip

Changes for: lip

Changes for: lower lip

Changes for: sublingual duct

Changes for: duct of salivary gland

Changes for: bony labyrinth

Changes for: carpometacarpal joint of digit 1

Changes for: nasal cartilage

Changes for: orbital septum

Changes for: sebaceous gland

Changes for: dorsal trunk

Changes for: sweat gland

Changes for: duct part of cochlear canal

Changes for: nasal cavity mucosa

Changes for: paranasal sinus

Changes for: mucosa of larynx

Changes for: nail of manual digit 5

Changes for: major salivary gland

Changes for: nail of pedal digit 1

Changes for: gingiva

Changes for: nail of manual digit 1

Changes for: extrinsic tongue pre-muscle mass

Changes for: outer limiting layer of retina

Changes for: photoreceptor layer of retina

Changes for: outer nuclear layer of retina

Changes for: chemoreceptor

  • Added
    • + chemoreceptor database cross reference MESH:A08.800.550.700.120
    • + chemoreceptor external definition Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptors may monitor external stimuli, as in taste and olfaction, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood. { source=MESH:A08.800.550.700.120 }

Changes for: anterior subdivision of masseter

Changes for: posterior subdivision of masseter

Changes for: optic disc

Changes for: cranial nerve

Changes for: fovea centralis

Changes for: spinal nerve

Changes for: layer of retina

Changes for: pigmented layer of retina

Changes for: vitreous chamber of eyeball

Changes for: vitreous body

Changes for: superficial part of temporalis

Changes for: suprazygomatic part of temporalis

Changes for: deep part of temporalis

Changes for: aqueous humor of eyeball

Changes for: vitreous humor

Changes for: inner limiting layer of retina

Changes for: inner plexiform layer of retina

Changes for: ganglionic layer of retina

Changes for: nerve fiber layer of retina

Changes for: outer plexiform layer of retina

Changes for: inner nuclear layer of retina

Changes for: Weber’s gland

Changes for: stylar shelf

Changes for: prehallux skeleton

Changes for: incisura fossa

Changes for: arcuate artery of foot

Changes for: adrenal tissue

Changes for: dorsal part of neck

Changes for: skeleton of pectoral complex

Changes for: skeleton of pelvic complex

Changes for: cloacal epithelium

Changes for: obsolete regional part of gustatory epithelium

Changes for: corpuscles of herbst

Changes for: mechanoreceptor

Changes for: Meissner’s corpuscle

Changes for: dentine

Changes for: lacrimal apparatus

Changes for: cementum

Changes for: enamel

Changes for: dental pulp

Changes for: middle ear

Changes for: pinna

Changes for: periodontium

Changes for: vagus nerve

Changes for: arytenoid cartilage

Changes for: capsule of thyroid gland

Changes for: lymphoid tissue

Changes for: parenchyma of parathyroid gland

Changes for: parenchyma of thyroid gland

Changes for: capsule of parathyroid gland

Changes for: sclera

Changes for: corneal epithelium

Changes for: ciliary body

Changes for: pupil

Changes for: lacrimal canaliculus

  • Deleted
    • - lacrimal canaliculus SubClassOf organ segment
    • - lacrimal canaliculus definition The lacrimal canaliculi, also known as the lacrimal canals or lacrimal ducts, are the small channels in each eyelid that commence at minute orifices, termed puncta lacrimalia, on the summits of the papillae lacrimales, seen on the margins of the lids at the lateral extremity of the lacus lacrimalis. The superior duct, the smaller and shorter of the two, at first ascends, and then bends at an acute angle, and passes medialward and downward to the lacrimal sac. The inferior duct at first descends, and then runs almost horizontally to the lacrimal sac. At the angles they are dilated into ampullæ. Microscopically, they are lined by nonkeratinizing stratified squamous epithelium surrounded by fibrous tissue. Outside the latter is a layer of striped muscle, continuous with the lacrimal part of the Orbicularis oculi; at the base of each lacrimal papilla the muscular fibers are circularly arranged and form a kind of sphincter. [WP,unvetted]. { database cross reference=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lacrimal_canaliculi }
    • - lacrimal canaliculus editor note TODO - resolve lacrimal canaliculus vs larcimal duct
  • Added

Changes for: optic choroid

Changes for: lumbar spinal cord gray commissure

Changes for: substantia propria of cornea

Changes for: iris stroma

Changes for: maxillary sinus

Changes for: nasal concha

Changes for: frontal sinus

Changes for: iris

Changes for: posterior chamber of eyeball

Changes for: uvea

Changes for: mammary duct

Changes for: anterior chamber of eyeball

Changes for: prepuce

Changes for: nucleus ambiguus

  • Deleted
    • - nucleus ambiguus definition The nucleus ambiguus (literally ‘ambiguous nucleus’) is a region of histologically disparate cells located just dorsal to the inferior olivary nucleus in the lateral portion of the upper medulla. It receives upper motor neuron innervation directly via the corticobulbar tract This nucleus gives rise to the efferent motor fibers of the vagus nerve terminating in the laryngeal and pharyngeal muscles, as well as to the efferent motor fibers of the glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) terminating in the stylopharyngeus. [WP,unvetted]. { database cross reference=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nucleus_ambiguus }
    • - nucleus ambiguus editor note This class was created automatically from a combination of ontologies
  • Added
    • + nucleus ambiguus definition A region of histologically disparate cells located just dorsal to the inferior olivary nucleus in the lateral portion of the upper medulla. It receives upper motor neuron innervation directly via the corticobulbar tract This nucleus gives rise to the efferent motor fibers of the vagus nerve terminating in the laryngeal and pharyngeal muscles, as well as to the efferent motor fibers of the glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) terminating in the stylopharyngeus. [WP,unvetted]. { database cross reference=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nucleus_ambiguus }

Changes for: mesencephalic nucleus of trigeminal nerve

Changes for: eyelid

Changes for: lower eyelid

Changes for: upper eyelid

Changes for: oculomotor nuclear complex

Changes for: cranial ganglion

Changes for: secondary palate

Changes for: jaw skeleton

Changes for: nasal cavity

Changes for: eyelash

Changes for: glossopharyngeal ganglion

Changes for: geniculate ganglion

Changes for: nasal septum

Changes for: nail

Changes for: neurocranium

Changes for: larynx

Changes for: submandibular gland

Changes for: laryngeal cartilage

Changes for: thyroid cartilage

Changes for: soft palate

Changes for: pharyngeal tonsil

Changes for: tonsillar ring

Changes for: palatine uvula

Changes for: cochlear nucleus

Changes for: oropharynx

Changes for: nasopharynx

Changes for: taste bud

Changes for: obsolete regional part of cervical spinal cord gray matter

Changes for: papilla of tongue

Changes for: sphenoidal sinus

Changes for: tongue

Changes for: ansa peduncularis

Changes for: sacral spinal cord white matter

Changes for: tibialis posterior

Changes for: flexor digitorum longus

Changes for: superior cerebellar vein

Changes for: cerebellar vein

Changes for: anterior auricular vein

Changes for: cerebral vein

Changes for: air in respiratory system

Changes for: ethmoid bone

Changes for: bodily gas

Changes for: temporal bone

Changes for: sphenoid bone

Changes for: trigeminal ganglion

Changes for: occipital bone

Changes for: temporal vein

Changes for: anterior cerebral vein

Changes for: inferior cerebellar vein

Changes for: malleus bone

Changes for: incus bone

Changes for: lacrimal bone

Changes for: nasal bone

Changes for: palatine bone

Changes for: jugal bone

Changes for: mandible

Changes for: hyoid bone

Changes for: auditory ossicle

Changes for: stapes bone

Changes for: sensory root of facial nerve

Changes for: exoccipital bone

Changes for: external ear

Changes for: basioccipital bone

Changes for: orbit of skull

Changes for: squamous part of temporal bone

Changes for: ear

Changes for: obsolete superficial feature part of parietal cortex

Changes for: bronchoalveolar duct junction

Changes for: neuron projection bundle connecting eye with brain

Changes for: supramarginal gyrus

Changes for: anterodorsal nucleus of thalamus

Changes for: postnatal subventricular zone

Changes for: central incisor tooth

Changes for: lateral incisor tooth

Changes for: duodenal papilla

Changes for: lower central secondary incisor tooth

Changes for: lower lateral secondary incisor tooth

Changes for: ventral anterior nucleus of thalamus

Changes for: anterior nucleus of hypothalamus

Changes for: motor nucleus of trigeminal nerve

Changes for: lower central primary incisor tooth

Changes for: upper lateral primary incisor tooth

Changes for: lower lateral primary incisor tooth

Changes for: upper central primary incisor tooth

Changes for: medial tarsal artery

Changes for: kidney arcuate artery

Changes for: medial marginal vein

Changes for: lower urinary tract

Changes for: upper respiratory tract

Changes for: lower respiratory tract

Changes for: matrix compartment of putamen

Changes for: popliteal vein

Changes for: popliteal lymph node

Changes for: inguinal lymph node

Changes for: medial plantar artery

Changes for: peroneal artery

Changes for: striosomal part of putamen

Changes for: dorsal metatarsal vein

Changes for: lateral marginal vein

Changes for: anterior tibial vein

Changes for: posterior tibial vein

Changes for: inferior pharyngeal constrictor

Changes for: digit skin

Changes for: facial muscle

Changes for: orbicularis oculi muscle

Changes for: olfactory nerve

Changes for: subcostal artery

  • Deleted
    • - subcostal artery definition The subcostal arteries, so named because they lie below the last ribs, constitute the lowest pair of branches derived from the thoracic aorta, and are in series with the intercostal arteries. Each passes along the lower border of the twelfth rib behind the kidney and in front of the Quadratus lumborum muscle, and is accompanied by the twelfth thoracic nerve. It then pierces the posterior aponeurosis of the Transversus abdominis, and, passing forward between this muscle and the Obliquus internus, anastomoses with the superior epigastric, lower intercostal, and lumbar arteries. Each subcostal artery gives off a posterior branch which has a similar distribution to the posterior ramus of an intercostal artery. [WP,unvetted]. { database cross reference=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subcostal_artery }
    • - subcostal artery editor note This class was created automatically from a combination of ontologies
  • Added
    • + subcostal artery SubClassOf posterior to some rib skeletal system
    • + subcostal artery definition An artery that runs along the bottom of the lowest rib. They constitute the lowest pair of branches derived from the thoracic aorta, and are in series with the intercostal arteries. Each passes along the lower border of the twelfth rib behind the kidney and in front of the Quadratus lumborum muscle, and is accompanied by the twelfth thoracic nerve. It then pierces the posterior aponeurosis of the Transversus abdominis, and, passing forward between this muscle and the Obliquus internus, anastomoses with the superior epigastric, lower intercostal, and lumbar arteries. Each subcostal artery gives off a posterior branch which has a similar distribution to the posterior ramus of an intercostal artery. [WP,unvetted]. { database cross reference=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subcostal_artery }

Changes for: neck of organ

Changes for: cricothyroid muscle

Changes for: cheek

Changes for: muscle of larynx

Changes for: masseter muscle

Changes for: temporalis muscle

Changes for: stapedius muscle

Changes for: bronchial vein

Changes for: venous plexus

Changes for: azygos vein

Changes for: pericardiacophrenic vein

Changes for: thymic vein

Changes for: thenar muscle

Changes for: future telencephalon

Changes for: subclavian vein

Changes for: vertebral vein

Changes for: anterior vena cava

Changes for: internal jugular vein

Changes for: left subclavian artery

Changes for: depressor labii inferioris

Changes for: levator labii superioris

Changes for: vertebral endplate

Changes for: aryepiglottic fold

Changes for: kidney collecting duct epithelium

Changes for: whorl of hair

Changes for: respiratory system muscle

Changes for: esophagus muscle

Changes for: lymph heart

Changes for: thoracic segment muscle

Changes for: respiratory muscle

Changes for: interscapular fat pad

Changes for: forelimb joint

Changes for: uterine fat pad

Changes for: femur cartilage element

Changes for: prostate bud

Changes for: future superior salivatory nucleus

Changes for: future nucleus ambiguus

Changes for: future dorsal motor nucleus of vagus

Changes for: future pterygopalatine ganglion

Changes for: future inferior salivatory nucleus

Changes for: future facial nucleus

Changes for: hindlimb zeugopod

Changes for: forelimb stylopod

Changes for: mouth mucosa

Changes for: mediastinum

Changes for: vestibular nerve

Changes for: collection of basal ganglia

Changes for: skeleton of digitopodium

Changes for: levator palpebrae superioris

Changes for: ciliary muscle

Changes for: extra-ocular muscle

Changes for: medial rectus extraocular muscle

Changes for: lateral rectus extra-ocular muscle

Changes for: isthmus of thyroid gland

Changes for: trachea basement membrane

Changes for: mental artery

Changes for: buccal artery

Changes for: transverse facial artery

Changes for: maxillary artery

Changes for: occipital artery

Changes for: stomach primordium

Changes for: superficial temporal artery

Changes for: sublingual artery

Changes for: facial artery

Changes for: ampullary gland

Changes for: lingual artery

Changes for: right coronary artery

Changes for: anterior cerebral artery

Changes for: middle cerebral artery

Changes for: left coronary artery

Changes for: carotid body

Changes for: posterior communicating artery

Changes for: interalveolar septum

Changes for: central retinal artery

Changes for: alveolar wall

Changes for: coronary artery

Changes for: right lung accessory lobe

Changes for: intercostal space

Changes for: posterior cerebral artery

Changes for: future tongue

Changes for: superior cerebellar artery

Changes for: basilar artery

Changes for: hepatic portal vein

Changes for: vein

Changes for: artery

Changes for: thoracic duct

Changes for: temporal artery

Changes for: muscle organ

  • Deleted
    • - muscle organ definition Organ consisting of a tissue made up of various elongated cells that are specialized to contract and thus to produce movement and mechanical work[GO]. Nonparenchymatous organ that primarily consists of skeletal muscle tissue aggregated into macroscopic fasciculi by connective tissue; together with other muscles, it constitutes the muscular system. Examples: biceps, diaphragm, masseter, right third external intercostal muscle, external oblique, levator ani, serratus anterior[FMA]. { database cross reference=GO:0007517 }
  • Added

Changes for: future dermis

Changes for: future common hepatic duct

Changes for: glossopharyngeal nerve

Changes for: vestibulocochlear nerve

Changes for: future diaphragm

Changes for: trigeminal nerve

Changes for: trochlear nerve

Changes for: facial nerve

Changes for: abducens nerve

Changes for: celiac artery

Changes for: oculomotor nerve

Changes for: presumptive midbrain

Changes for: chromaffin system

Changes for: transverse facial vein

Changes for: supraorbital vein

Changes for: hypoglossal nerve

Changes for: gastrointestinal system mesentery

Changes for: aorta endothelium

Changes for: vasculature of retina

Changes for: entorhinal cortex

Changes for: future myelencephalon

Changes for: future hindbrain meninges

Changes for: future metencephalon

Changes for: future falx cerebri

Changes for: splanchnic layer of lateral plate mesoderm

Changes for: somatic layer of lateral plate mesoderm

Changes for: urogenital fold

Changes for: visceral endoderm

Changes for: distal visceral endoderm

Changes for: medial dorsal nucleus of thalamus

Changes for: chordamesoderm

Changes for: lamina of septum pellucidum

Changes for: lung mesenchyme

Changes for: lobar bronchus mesenchyme

Changes for: diagonal band of Broca

Changes for: endometrium epithelium

Changes for: nephron tubule epithelium

Changes for: set of lower jaw teeth

Changes for: nose tip

Changes for: vinculum of tendon

Changes for: kidney epithelium

Changes for: larynx epithelium

Changes for: seminiferous tubule epithelium

Changes for: bile duct epithelium

Changes for: pulmonary alveolus epithelium

Changes for: gut mesentery

Changes for: ventral mesentery

Changes for: ingested food

Changes for: set of upper jaw teeth

Changes for: anterior inferior cerebellar artery

Changes for: prepollex skeleton

Changes for: posterior nuclear complex of thalamus

Changes for: corticospinal tract

Changes for: precentral gyrus

Changes for: salivary gland epithelium

Changes for: respiratory system epithelium

Changes for: vas deferens epithelium

Changes for: nasion

Changes for: seminal vesicle epithelium

Changes for: respiratory tract epithelium

Changes for: cervix epithelium

Changes for: intergluteal cleft

Changes for: central part of body of bony vertebral centrum

Changes for: male breast

Changes for: anterior chest

Changes for: medullary cavity of long bone

Changes for: lateral corticospinal tract

Changes for: postcentral gyrus

Changes for: renal venous blood vessel

Changes for: compact bone of long bone

Changes for: compact bone of diaphysis

Changes for: epiphyseal plate of radius

Changes for: proximal interphalangeal joint of little finger

Changes for: olivary pretectal nucleus

Changes for: basal part of pons

Changes for: base of glans penis

Changes for: corona of glans penis

Changes for: cervical vertebral arch joint

Changes for: pulmonary capillary

Changes for: larva

  • Deleted
    • - larva editor note This class was created automatically from a combination of ontologies

Changes for: iliac crest

Changes for: inferior pubic ramus

Changes for: upper secondary premolar tooth

Changes for: upper lateral secondary incisor tooth

Changes for: upper central secondary incisor tooth

Changes for: lower secondary premolar tooth

Changes for: posterior pole of lens

Changes for: esophageal hiatus

Changes for: digit

Changes for: hatching gland

Changes for: pharyngeal arch

Changes for: limb paddle

Changes for: male membranous urethra

Changes for: acetabular fossa

Changes for: pubic ramus

Changes for: ureteral orifice

Changes for: lateral cervical lymph node

Changes for: periorbital skin

Changes for: gland

Changes for: dorsum of nose

Changes for: antitragus

Changes for: antihelix

Changes for: post-anal tail bud

Changes for: brachial lymph node

Changes for: greater sciatic notch

Changes for: palmar branch of median nerve

Changes for: submandibular lymph node

Changes for: chest wall

Changes for: otolithic part of statoconial membrane

Changes for: basicranium

Changes for: otolith organ

Changes for: periosteum

Changes for: epiphyseal plate

Changes for: glabella region of bone

Changes for: corpus luteum

Changes for: hair of trunk

Changes for: trabecula carnea

Changes for: hair of head

Changes for: anterior fontanel

Changes for: median palatine suture

Changes for: calcaneus

Changes for: navicular bone of pes

Changes for: face

Changes for: thoracic skeleton

Changes for: skin of eyelid

Changes for: skin of external ear

Changes for: skeleton of pes

Changes for: chest

Changes for: skeleton of manus

Changes for: metatarsal bone

Changes for: phalanx of pes

Changes for: fibula

Changes for: tarsal bone

Changes for: distal carpal bone 3

Changes for: distal carpal bone 2

Changes for: skeletal system

Changes for: distal carpal bone 4

Changes for: distal carpal bone 1

Changes for: tongue taste bud

Changes for: compact bone tissue

Changes for: pretectal nucleus

Changes for: carpal bone

Changes for: phalanx of manus

Changes for: epiphysis

Changes for: metaphysis

Changes for: radius bone

Changes for: pectoral girdle region

Changes for: renal fat pad

Changes for: lunate

Changes for: scaphoid

Changes for: ulna

Changes for: elbow joint

Changes for: radial nerve

Changes for: ulnar nerve

  • Deleted
    • - ulnar nerve SubClassOf part of some brachial nerve plexus
    • - ulnar nerve definition In human anatomy, the ulnar nerve is a nerve which runs near the ulna bone. The ulnar nerve is the largest unprotected nerve in the human body (meaning, unprotected by muscle or bone), and the only unprotected nerve that does not serve a purely sensory function (those nerves specifically meant to perceive changes in the environment, such as nerves in the skin). This nerve is directly connected to the little finger, and the adjacent half of the ring finger, supplying the palmar side of these fingers, including both front and back of the tips, perhaps as far back as the fingernail beds. One method of injuring the nerve is to strike the medial epicondyle of the humerus from posteriorly, or inferiorly with the elbow flexed. The ulnar nerve is trapped between the bone and the overlying skin at this point. This is commonly referred to as hitting one’s ‘funny bone. ‘ This name is thought to be a pun, based on the sound resemblance between the words ‘humerus’ and ‘humourous’ . [WP,unvetted]. { database cross reference=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ulnar_nerve }
  • Added

Changes for: pectoral muscle

Changes for: ascending aorta

Changes for: muscle of pelvic girdle

Changes for: muscle of pes